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|標題:||鏈黴菌Streptomyces saraceticus 31與五種微生物之施用對南方根瘤線蟲以及植物生長之影響
Effects of Streptomyces saraceticus 31 and five microorganisms on the population of Meloidogyne incognita and plant growth
|關鍵字:||鏈黴菌;Streptomyces saraceticus;枯草桿菌;木黴菌;溶磷菌;固氮菌;菌根菌;混合施用;南方根瘤線蟲;植物生長促進;Bacillus subtilis;Trichoderma;Phosphate solubilizing bacteria;Nitrogen fixing bacteria;Mycorrhizal fungi;Co-inoculation;Meloidogyne incognita;Plant growth promotion||出版社:||植物病理學系所||引用:||Alami, Y., Achouak, W., Marol, C., and Heulin, T. 2000. Rhizosphere soil aggregation and plant growth promotion of sunflowers by an exopolysaccharide- producing Rhizobium sp. strain isolated from sunflower roots. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:3393-3398. Aldesuquy, H.S., Mansour, F. A., and Abo-Hamed, S. A. 1998. Effect of the culture filtrates of Streptomyces on growth and productivity of wheat plants. Folia Microbiology 43:465-470. Arkhipova, T. N., Veselov, S. U., Melentiev, A. I., Martynenko, E. V., and Kudoyarova, G. R. 2005. Ability of bacterium Bacillus subtilis to produce cytokinins and to influence the growth and endogenous hormone content of lettuce plants. Plant and Soil 272:201-209. 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多種微生物具有促進植物生長或是防治病害的能力，其中以根圈微生物為多，而共同施用不同微生物亦被廣泛研究，企圖對植物生長或病害防治引發加乘效果。然而混合微生物往往因為施用菌種、防治對象、環境及作物的不同而沒有一定的結論。本試驗以鏈黴菌Streptomyces saraceticus 31(SS31)為主要研究對象，將之混合Bacillus subtilis、Trichoderma sp.、溶磷菌、固氮菌(Rhizobium sp.)及菌根菌，評估混合兩種生物製劑施用對南方根瘤線蟲的防治以及對植物生長促進的效果。對峙培養結果僅B. subtilis對SS31有抑制現象；液態共同培養則顯示B. subtilis與溶磷菌養分競爭能力強，能抑制SS31生長，但是於溫室試驗中微生物混用對各菌之族群量並無明顯影響，SS31、Bacillus subtilis、溶磷菌及固氮菌之族群量皆能維持在每克根圈土104 CFU以上，Trichooderma sp.則維持在103 CFU以上，而菌根菌厚膜孢子可於每克根圈土分離得100顆以上。其中Trichooderma sp.無論有無與SS31混合，其根圈族群量在含有根瘤線蟲的環境下皆出現隨時間下降的情形，於施用後110天下降至1.3×102 CFU。沒有培養基質之微生物菌體懸浮液皆無法有效降低根瘤線蟲蟲卵之孵化率，僅Trichoderma sp.與固氮菌能降低根瘤線蟲侵染力，而溶磷菌則有降低空心菜對二齡幼蟲誘引率的能力。在帶有培養基質的處理中，SS31黃豆砂糖培養液能有效降低根瘤線蟲蟲卵之孵化率、侵染力以及對二齡幼蟲之誘引率，B. subtilis、Trichoderma sp.及溶磷菌之商品皆能降低卵之孵化率，但僅Trichoderma sp.能降低侵染力，B. subtilis及溶磷菌則能降低空心菜對二齡幼蟲之誘引率。於中興大學進行短期溫室試驗中實際施用微生物商品或培養液以及菌體懸浮液，結果亦顯示施用微生物商品或培養液對植物的生長或南方根瘤線蟲的防治效果較好，說明培養基質中所含二次代謝物對生物製劑的重要性。於霧峰進行之長期溫室試驗顯示，僅在接種線蟲前施用微生物(前處理)才能顯著降低根瘤線蟲族群。前處理中單獨施用SS31、Trichoderma sp.、溶磷菌、固氮菌，以及將SS31分別與B. subtilis、Trichoderma sp.、溶磷菌、固氮菌及菌根菌混合施用皆能明顯降低土壤中根瘤線蟲族群量，以微生物與SS31混合施用降低之族群量較多，又以SS31混合菌根菌施用之效果最佳，該處理能於接種後70及110天中顯著降低南方根瘤線蟲族群，一百克土壤中分離之二齡幼蟲各為17.7及127.7隻，而對照組則為112.0及1679.0隻。在接種根瘤線蟲後施用微生物雖也能降低根瘤線蟲族群，然而所有處理皆沒有顯著差異。長期溫室試驗中亦顯示微生物混用在生長期110天時植物生長較單獨施用之處理為佳，其中SS31混合B. subtilis能顯著提升空心菜鮮重，於施用後110天之地上部鮮重(35.1 g)達對照組(15.1 g)兩倍以上，具備生物肥料發展潛力。無論微生物的單獨或混合施用對於香蕉的生長幫助皆有限，僅能略為增加香蕉株高，各處理於六個月的試驗中幾乎沒有顯著差異；且測試盆缽中微生物的處理對土壤pH值影響不大。整體而言，微生物的混合施用對於根瘤線蟲的防治以及空心菜生長確實較有幫助，然而相較於微生物的單獨施用卻幾乎沒有顯著差異，顯示即使施用之微生物能共存於同一環境，如以一般方式直接混用並無法達到加乘效果，而混合施用對作物生產所增加的效益是否符合經濟成本亦尚需進一步評估。
Numerous microorganisms have the potential to control disease and to promote plant growth, and most of them are considered rhizosphere microorganisms. Co- inoculation of more than one beneficial microorganisms was attempted in previous studies, tried to induce synergistic interaction and increase promotional ability of plant growth or control more diseases. In this study, Streptomyces saraceticus 31 (SS31) was co- inoculated with Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma sp., phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB), and mycorrhizal fungi, respectively. The effects of these microorganisms applied alone or with SS31 on plant growth promotion and root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) control was evaluated. In the duel culture tests, SS31 was only inhibited by B. subtilis, and when co-cultured in potato sucrose broth, the population of SS31 was also inhibited by B. subtilis and PSB. All microorganisms could be reisolated after 110 days from rhizosphere of water spinach and banana; SS31, B. subtilis, PSB, and NFB had more than 104 CFU/g soil, Trichoderma sp. more than 103 CFU, and mycorrhizal fungi more than 100 spores. When water spinach was inoculated with RKN, the population of Trichoderma sp. would decrease over time to 1.3 × 102 CFU/g soil. All the microorganism water suspensions did not lower RKN egg hatching rate, the water suspensions of Trichoderma sp. and NFB could lower RKN J2 infective ability, and PSB could decrease the attracting rate of water spinach root to RKN J2. On the other hand, SS31 soybean-sucrose cultured solution significantly decreased RKN egg hatching rate, infective ability, and the attracting rate of water spinach root to RKN J2. Commercial products of B. subtilis and PSB showed the effect on decreasing egg hatching rate and the attracting rate. Trichoderma sp. could lower both hatching rate and infective ability of RKN. When the microorganisms were cultured in rich broth or applied as commercial products, SS31, B. subtilis, Trichoderma sp. and PSB showed potential to control RKN. Suggesting the cultured substance and the secondary metabolites played an important role in disease control. In a 52 days green house test, microorganism cultured in rich solutions and commercial products also showed better efficacy than water suspension on RKN control and plant growth promotion. Single inoculated with SS31, PSB, NFB, and co-inoculated SS31 with Trichoderma sp., PSB, NFB, and mycorrhizal fungi in a 130 days green house test showed that applied microorganisms before RKN infection significantly decreased RKN population. The co-inoculated treatments could suppress RKN in soil better than single bioagent treatments. Among them, co-inoculation of SS31 and mycorrhizal fungi, after 70 and 110 days of inoculation, decreased RKN population to 17.7 and 127.7 J2/g soil, while the blank control treatment were 112.0 and 1678.0 J2/g soil. When bio-agents were added after RKN infection, they could also decrease RKN J2 population. In the 110 days green house test, co-inoculation of SS31 and B. subtilis was the best treatment for water spinach growth promotion; 110 days after inoculation, the above ground fresh weight (35.1 g) was twice more than the blank control treatment control (15.1 g). The results also showed co-inoculation treatments could help water spinach growth better than single bio-agent treatments. However, all treatments showed little effect on promoting banana plant growth; all treatments were no effect on soil pH values. Overall, co-inoculations of SS31 and other five microorganisms showed better effects on RKN control and plant growth promotion, but the results were not significantly different from each other. Based from my study, the result indicated that if microorganisms could coexist in the same environment, the synergy effect might not happen, so the cost effect of apply more than one bioagents need to be carefully evaluated.
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