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標題: 萵苣萎凋病菌的生理小種鑑定與防治試驗
Identification for Physiological races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae and Control Experimentsof Lettuce Fusarium WiltIdentification for Physiological races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae and Control Experimentsof Lettuce Fusarium WiltI
作者: 黃久菱
Huang, Ju-Ling
關鍵字: lettuce Fusarium wilt;萵苣萎凋病;differential cultivars;CH100-S amendment;biological control;生理小種;拮抗菌;土壤添加物;CH100-S植物健素漿劑
出版社: 植物病理學系
利用Costa Rica NO.4、Banchu Red Fire及Patriot等三種指示植物,鑑別台灣萵苣萎凋病菌Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae 15個菌株的生理小種,結果發現LFO 11-13、LFO 101-1、LFO 101-2、LFO 102-3、LFO 103-3、LFO 103-5、LFO 103-6、LFO 103-7、LFO 104-1、LFO 104-2、LFO 105-1及LFO 106-2等12個菌株歸屬於race1,而LFO 32-14、LFO 106-1及LFO 106-3菌株異於日本與美國的三個生理小種,因此推測台灣可能已出現新的生理小種。將30個品種的萵苣播種於含有LFO 11-13與LFO 32-14菌株的病菌土 (104 cfu/g soil)中,在溫室中(28 – 32℃)四週後,調查萵苣萎凋病的罹病度,結果發現包心妺、大陸妹及嫩莖萵苣(青竹筍、白竹筍萵苣)屬於抗病品種 (罹病度為0 – 20 %);紅橡葉萵苣、明豐三號等屬於中抗(罹病度為21 – 50 %);皺葉萵苣、紅捲葉萵苣、波士頓萵苣 (Aramir)、明豐大葉白尖萵苣型萵苣等屬於中感(罹病度為51 – 70 %);圓葉、劍葉、細葉白尖萵苣等屬於感病品種 (罹病度為71 – 100 %)。土壤添加0.5 % (w/w) 蝦蟹殼粉、花生粕、魚粉、芝麻渣或103 ul/L CH100-S植物健素漿劑七天後,隨即種植萵苣,可顯著增加萵苣植株的生長。在病菌土中添加以0.5 % (w/w) 蝦蟹殼粉、黃豆粉及CH100-S植物健素漿劑103 ul/L等有機添加物,皆可有效減輕病害的發生,其中CH100-S可使罹病度降低40 %。在病菌土中分別處理不同濃度的CH100-S,結果103 ul/L CH100-S漿劑可降低29 – 40 %萵苣萎凋病的罹病度。若以CH100-S漿劑處理六天後,再播種萵苣種子,則可降低27 – 50 %的罹病度。進一步探討CH100-S漿劑防治萵苣萎凋病的相關因子,發現CH100-S可顯著促進土壤微生物的增殖,包括真菌、細菌及放線菌的數量皆有顯著增加的現象,同時亦可降低土壤中病原菌的密度與厚膜孢子的發芽率。比較處理與未處理過CH100-S的萵苣植株,發現CH100-S可顯著促進萵苣的植株生長勢,包括促進根系發育,增加株高及鮮重,並減少褐變率。由處理過CH100-S的土壤與各地區田土中,分離出134個微生物菌株,分別與F. oxysporum f.sp. lactucae LFO 11-13及LFO 32-14菌株在PDA平板上進行對峙培養,結果有32 %的微生物菌株對於本病原菌具有拮抗作用。進而利用浸根的方法評估各菌株對萵苣幼苗發育的影響,發現各菌株均不會傷害萵苣幼苗的發育,其中CHB103與CHB184兩個菌株促進萵苣幼苗生長的效果較佳。進一步,以CH100-S配合不同拮抗微生物菌株處理病菌土(103 cfu/g soil)一天後,再播種萵苣種子,在28 ℃生長箱中四週後,結果顯示單獨施用B122、CHB139、CHB143、CHB180、CHB184、CHB186、CHB190等菌株即可降低罹病度29 – 40 %;若它們配合CH100-S後,更可顯著降低萵苣萎凋病的罹病率達41 – 59 %。測量萵苣的根重後發現,單獨施用CH100-S者比對照組每10株萵苣鮮重增加11.7 – 17 mg;若配合細菌菌株後,每10株萵苣根重明顯增加26.7 – 34 mg,其中以CHB184、CHB186及B190 防治效果最佳,且尚有顯著促進萵苣植株生長的功效。

In Taiwan, lettuce Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae is a serious soil-borne disease in monoculture fields during summer season. The disease plants of lettuce appeared yellowing, vascular discoloration of taproots and stems, stunning and wilt symptoms. The disease is one of the limiting factors of yield in commercial lettuce cultivation. Three lettuce cultivars, Costa Rica No.4, Benchu Red Fire and Patriot were used as differential cultivars for identification of the physiological races of F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. The results indicated that 12 isolates of the pathogen obtained from Taiwan were identified as race1, howeven the pathogenical characteristics of three isolates LFO 32-14, LFO 106-1 and LFO 106-3 were different from ones of three races of Japanese and USA isolates. The results suggest that a new race of F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae may has occurred in Taiwan. Susceptibility of thirty lettuce cultivars to isolates LFO 11-13 and LFO 32-14 was apparently varied degree. Among the cultivars tested, asparagus lettuce and crisp head lettuce were the most resistant to Fusarium wilt. However round-leaf lettuce, pointed leaf lettuce and indian lettuce were very susceptible. In this study, amendment of soil with crab and shrimp shell powder, soybean meal and CH100-S was able to enhance lettuce growth and reduce disease severity of lettuce Fusarium wilt. CH100-S, a new formulation of Plant health guard CH100 paste, was obtained from precipitate substance of a mixture solution for producing CH100 that includes major ingredients of S-H mixture, extracts of tobacco and cabbage, and is recommended for control of a wide range of plant pests. Application of CH100-S at 1000-fold dilution was significantly effective in reducing disease severity of lettuce Fusarium wilt in greenhouse test. Lettuce seeds were sown in infested soil which had been treated with CH100-S for six days. The disease severity of lettuce Fusarium wilt was markedly reduced 27 - 50 %. CH100-S did also promote growth of lettuce plants and stimulate proliferation of beneficial microorganisms including fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. Beneficial microorganisms were isolated from the CH100-S-treated rhizosphere soils, and showed either antagonistic ability to the pathogen or promoting plant growth. These bacterial isolates including B122, CHB139, CHB143, CHB180, CHB184, CHB186 and CHB190 were significantly effective in reducing disease severity and increasing root weight of lettuce. Especially, amendment of LFO 11-13-infested soil with CH100-S mixed with CHB184 was more effective than CH100-S alone in reducing disease severity.
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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