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標題: 台灣長喙殼菌及相關類群真菌之鑑定
Identification of Ophiostomatoid and Allied Fungi in Taiwan
作者: 黃尹則
Huang, Yin-Tse
關鍵字: Ophiostomatoid fungi;長喙殼菌類真菌;bark beetles;小蠹蟲
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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長喙殼菌類真菌 (ophiostomatoid fungi) 為森林生態中重要之真菌類群,有些種類會造成樹木病害,而多數之種類會引起樹木邊材之藍染,在森林中主要藉由昆蟲、尤其是小蠹蟲所傳播,其主要的菌屬為 Ophiostoma、Ceratocystiopsis、Grosmannia 及 Ceratocystis,以及其無性態之屬,包括 Pesotum、Sporothrix、Hyalorhinocladiella、Leptographium 及 Thielaviopsis。本研究之目的為調查長喙殼菌類真菌在台灣之多樣性,探討其分類之問題,並在研究過程中了解長喙殼菌類真菌之生態特性,以應用適當之方法於自然界中搜集得到特定之長喙殼菌類真菌。然而有些不屬於長喙殼菌類真菌之種類,卻演化出與長喙殼菌類真菌極為相似之外觀形態,如 Graphium 屬演化出與長喙殼菌類真菌之 Pesotum 屬相同之分生孢子束 (synnemata) 及黏性孢子,Chalara 屬演化出與 Thielaviopsis 屬相同之長領口之瓶狀 (phialidic) 產孢細胞與內生性孢子,為了適應相同之生長環境之生態特性,造成如此趨同演化之現象,以至於在分類上常造成混淆,所以這類相關之真菌亦包括在本研究之範疇。針對採集分離所得菌種,依照形態及分子親緣分析進行鑑定,共發現 10 種長喙殼菌類真菌,9 種相關之真菌,其中有 6 為新紀錄種、7 種為新種,此結果也代表著台灣蘊藏有更多的此類菌種待發掘。研究過程亦釐清了此類群真菌之分類、鑑定問題,為未來此類真菌之探索建立基礎。

Ophiostomatoid fungi are important in forest ecology. Some species can cause serious tree diseases. While most species are the causal agent of blue stain appearing on sapwood. Ophiostomatoid fungi are usually associated with insects, especially bark beetles, which serve as vectors for dispersing these fungi. Ophiostomatoid fungi include the genera of Ophiostoma, Ceratocystiopsis, Grosmannia, Ceratocystis, and their anamorphs, such as Pesotum, Sporothrix, Hyalorhinocladiella, Leptographium, Thielaviopsis. The aim of this study was to survey the diversity of ophiostomatoid fungi in Taiwan, and to look into their taxonomy. In realizing ecological properties of these fungi during this study, adequate approaches have been applied to obtained specific ophiostomatoid fungi. However some fungi, although not in the definition of ophiotomatoid fungi, share characters with ophiotomatoid fungi and are morphologically indistinguishable from them. Species of Graphium and Chalara are the most significant examples. Graphium shares with Pesotum in having the characters of synnemata and slimy spore masses. Chalara shares with Thielaviopsis in having the characters of phialidic conidiogeneous cells with long-collarette and endogenous conidia. The convergent evolution of these ophiostomatoid allied fungi makes the taxonomy of ophiostomatoid fungi complicated. To clarify their taxonomy, those ophiostomatoid allied fungi are also involved in this study. Species identifications were carried out by combining the data from morphology and phylogenetic analyses. Eventually 10 ophiostomatoid fungi and 9 ophiostomatoid allied fungi were found. Among them, 7 species are new species. The result suggests that there are diverse ophiostomatoid and allied fungi awaiting to be discovered in Taiwan. By clarifying the taxonomy and identification of these fungi, the basis for further researches on these fascinating fungi in Taiwan is established.
其他識別: U0005-1408201123315600
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