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標題: 十字花科蔬菜炭疽病菌的病原性與存活
Pathogenicity and Survival of Colletotrichum higginsianum, the Causal Agent of Crucifer Anthracnose
作者: 孫彩玉
Sun, Tsai-Yu
關鍵字: Anthracnose of pak choi;白菜炭疽病;pak choi;Colletotrichum higginsianum;standard area diagram;susceptibility of host;semiselective medium;survival;白菜;十字花科炭疽病菌;標準面積圖示;寄主抗感性;半選擇性培養基;存活
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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白菜炭疽病為臺灣有機蔬菜栽培田的常見病害,可在多種十字花科作物上造成葉斑病徵。自病葉可分離到 Colletotrichum higginsianum 及 C. gloeosporioides,C. higginsianum可感染無傷口的白菜及有傷口的芒果與蕃茄,相對地 C. gloeosporioides 可感染無傷口的芒果與蕃茄,但只能讓有傷口的白菜組織白化,可能只是白菜的弱病原菌。依據 Horsfall-Barratt分級表,設計出 0.07、3、10、25 及50% 五個等級的標準面積圖示作為此研究量化病害的基礎,使用圖示有助於評估罹病度時的準確度與精確度。不同蕓薹屬作物接種 C. higginsianum,結果發現小白菜與蕪菁比芥菜、甘藍及蘿蔔感病,而不結球白菜中彩玉、丸葉山東、改良一條根及鳳珍品種最感病,606 品種青梗白菜最抗病。評估十五種氮素源與十八種碳素源對C. higginsianum 生長的影響,結果以磷酸一銨作為氮素源時菌落顏色最鮮明;以高甲氧基果膠作為碳素源時則最可促進分生孢子發芽,而 3% (m/v) 高甲氧基果膠最可促進菌絲生長。比較十一種抗微生物藥劑對C. higginsianum 的抑制效果,結果發現鏈黴素、氯黴素、滅達樂、賓克隆及腐絕抑制本菌的效果較差,但卻可有效抑制木黴菌和其他真菌的生長。因此將30公克高甲氧基果膠、2公克磷酸一銨、1公克磷酸氫二鉀、0.5公克硫酸鎂、0.5公克氯化鉀、0.01公克硫酸鐵、15公克洋菜粉及 1公升去離子水均勻混合,以氫氧化鉀調整酸鹼值至pH 6.0,經高溫高壓 (121℃, 151 b, 15 min) 滅菌後,加入200 μg mL-1滅達樂、300 μg mL-1賓克隆、1 μg mL-1腐絕、100 μg mL-1 氯黴素及 200 μg mL-1 鏈黴素等調製成高甲氧基果膠-磷酸一銨半選擇性培養基 (HA 半選擇性培養基),此培養基可有效率地自人工病土中回收本菌,並與其他炭疽病菌區別。運用HA 半選擇性培養基檢測 C. higginsianum 在田間殘存的場所,結果可在小白菜殘體、泥炭苔、繖花龍吐珠、鼠麴舅與龍葵中偵測到此菌。C. higginsianum 可在定經草、繖花龍吐珠、香附子及野莧中增殖,在山芥菜上菌量減少較緩。殘存於葉片的C. higginsianum 比裸生孢子具有更高的存活率,牛糞堆肥可促進本菌在土中增殖,而粕類則有助於本菌在土中的存活。將病葉殘體埋入土中五公分及十公分深,比留置地表更能加速病原菌衰亡。

Anthracnose disease of pak choi [Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt] is a common disease in organic farm in Taiwan. It can cause a leaf spot on several species of Brassicaceae. Colletotrichum higginsianum and C. gloeosporioides could be isolated from the disease leaves. C. higginsianum could infect unwounded pak choi leaf, wounded mango leaf and tomato fruit. Comparatively, C. gloeosporioides could infect unwounded mango leaf and unwounded tomato fruit but cause leaf chlorosis on wounded pak choi leaf. It may be weak pathogen on pak choi. A standard area diagram showed the levels of 0.07, 3, 10, 25 and 50% was developed for assessing disease severity in this study. The accuracy and precision of disease assessment were improved when standard area program was used. Nine Brassica spp. crops were inoculated with C. higginsianum. Pak choi and turnip were more susceptible than leaf mustard, cabbage and radish. Among seventeen cultivars of Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis, the most susceptible cultivars were Tsai-Yu, Chief, Gai-liang-Yi-Tiao-Gen and Feng-Jhen; the most resistant cultivar was 606 chingensai. Fifteen nitrogenous compounds and eighteen carbohydrates were evaluated for their efficacy on growth of C. higginsianum. The colony color was brightest when the pathogen was cultured on the medium with ammonium phosphate as nitrogen source. The conidial germination was most improved by high methoxy pectin (HMP) as carbon source, and 3% (w/v) HMP was effective in enhancing growth of the pathogen. Among the eleven antimicrobial agents tested, streptomycin sulfate, chloramphenicol, metalaxyl , pencycuron and thiabendazole showed less adverse effect on growth of C. higginsianum but could suppress Trichoderma sp. and other fungi. Based on these results, a HMP- ammonium phosphate semiselective medium (designated as the HA semiselective medium) consisting of 30 g high methoxy pectin, 2 g monoammonium phosphate, 1 g K2HPO4, 0.5 g KCl, 0.5 g MgSO4.7H2O, 0.01 g FeSO4.7H2O, 15 g agar, 200 μg mL-1 metalaxyl, 300 μg mL-1 pencycuron, 1μg mL-1 thiabendazole, 100 μg mL-1 chloramphenicol and 200 μg mL-1 streptomycin sulfate, and pH value of medium was adjusted to pH 6.0 by KOH before autoclaving. C. higginsianum was able to be accurately detected from artificially infested soil and distinguished easily from other Colletotrichum spp. by using HA semiselective medium. C. higginsianum could be detected from infective leaves of pak choi, peat moss, old world diamond-flower, purple cudweed and nightshade by using HA semiselective medium. Population of the pathogen increased on Cardamine parviflora, Hedyotis corymbosa, Cyperus rotundus and Amaranthus viridis, and decreased slightly on Rorippa indica. Naked conidia of the pathogen showed less survival ability in soil than it colonized in leaves of pak choi. Cow manure enhanced the proliferation of the pathogen in soil. Seed meals were significantly effective to enhance or maintain the survival of the pathogen in soil. The pathogen declined faster in infected debris buried at 5 and 10 cm depths in soil than those placed on the soil surface.
其他識別: U0005-2007201114502100
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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