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標題: 苦瓜嫁接絲瓜砧的病害鑑定與管理
The identification and management of diseases of bitter gourd- loofah grafts
作者: 黃國修
Huang, Kuo-Shiou
關鍵字: bitter gourd-loofah grafts;苦瓜嫁接絲瓜;damping off;sunscald;graft incompatibility;立枯病;日燒症;嫁接不親和
出版社: 植物病理學系
中文摘要 本論文的目的即在研究苦瓜萎凋病菌(Fusarium oxysporum
f. sp. momordicae )在田間的族群變化,及鑑定苦瓜接穗嫁接絲瓜根砧
所產生的病害及其管理方法,以確保 嫁接苦瓜的生產。苦瓜萎凋病菌主
要分佈於耕犁層(0~30 cm)的土壤中,不論是輪作 一年的水稻或青,
或者以人工病土在實驗室中作不同含水量的處理,其族群密度皆維 持在
102 propagules/g soil 以上,仍可使苦瓜發病;而且田間水稻及若干雜
根砧即可有效防治苦瓜 萎凋病。但在夏天生產嫁接苗時,發生前未鑑定
之立枯病與日燒症,及嫁接株在田間突然 萎凋死亡的病害。本研究鑑定
嫁接苗立枯病乃由立枯絲核菌(Rhizoctonia solani)在 24℃ 以上和潮
濕的環境所引起;日燒症乃是 28℃ 以上的高溫所造成;定植後嫁接株在
法,除使用藥劑 防治立枯病之外,亦可選擇在 20℃ 的環境中培育嫁接
苗,或者改用 1:1 頂劈嫁接及 割裂靠接法製作嫁接苗,即可防治立枯
病與日燒症。另外發展在田間定植嫁接苗後,隨 即於其旁割裂根靠接一
株絲瓜苗,即可有效防治穗砧間的嫁接不親和現象。在田間連續 數年種
植嫁接苗,不但有效防治苦瓜萎凋病,而且使產量達到 100 公噸/公頃左

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to investigate the
population fluctuation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
momordicae (Fomo) in fields, to identify severalpreviously
undiagnosed diseases of bitter gourd-loofah (scion-rootstock)
grafts and their management measures, and hence, to protect the
productionof grafting bitter gourd. Fomo was found mostly in
the soil of tillagelayer (0~30 cm) and maintained 102
propagules/g soil (the threshold densityfor causing wilt of
bitter gourd) either in the field rotated with riceor green
onion for one year or in the infested soil treated with
differentwater contents in the laboratory. Field survey also
indicated that the roottissues of rice plants and some weeds in
the bitter gourd field could carrysmall amount of Fomo.
Therefore, this pathogen is hardly to be removed fromfields.
Fusarium wilt of bitter gourd could be controlled by using
bittergourd shoot as scion cleft grafted on loofah as rootstock,
but it was notpractical in fields due to some new limiting
diseases. Damping off and sunscald of graft seedlings occurred
severely in nursery bed in the summertime and sudden wilt of
grafts would happen within 2 months after
transplanting the seedlings to the field. This thesis had
identified thesediseases that the damping off was caused by
Rhizoctonia solani when theenvironment was humid and above 24℃;
the sunscald happened under hotcondition when the temperature
was above 28℃; and the sudden wilt was dueto graft
incompatibility between scion and rootstock. The research
alsoproposed the proper management measures for these diseases
including sprayingchemicals for controlling damping off,
producing graft seedlings under theenvironment of 20℃, using
bitter gourd seedling from seed instead of shoot as scion cleft
grafted on loofah as rootstock or using cleft inarchinginstead
of cleft grafting methods to produce graft seedlings for
controllingdamping off and sunscald, and cleft root inarching a
loofah seedling to a graft in field to repair the graft
incompatibility. Growing grafts in fields several years
revealed that Fusarium wilt of bitter gourd disappearedand the
yields of bitter gourd reached 100 t/ha or so.
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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