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Establishing the model of nematodes as bioindicators for river pollution
|關鍵字:||nematodes;線蟲;bioindicator;river pollution;Beigang river;MI;NCR;RPI;生物指標;河川污染;北港溪;食性||出版社:||植物病理學系所||引用:||王一雄、陳尊賢、李達源(編)。1995。土壤污染學。281頁。 朱達仁、施君翰、汪淑慧、張睿昇。2006。溪流環境評估常使用的量化生態指標簡介。台灣林業 32(2): 30-39。 行政院環保署。2005。環境水質監測年報河川水質篇。中華民國行政院環境保護署。59-62頁。 汪靜明。1996。 河川生態保育原理。環境教育季刊 31:27-53。 洪正中、杜政榮、吳天基編。2003。環境生態學二版。國立空中大學。430頁。 吳俊宗。1998。台北水源特定區河川藻類相與水質關係研究。研究報告。64頁。 陳鎮東、王冰潔。1997。台灣的湖泊與水庫。504頁。 蔡東纂。1996。台灣作物線蟲病連作障害發生及對策。植病會刊 5:113-128。 Abebe, E., Andrassy, I., Traunspurger, W., 2006. Freshwater nematodes ecology and taxonomy. CABI Publishing. Bongers, T., 1990. The maturity-index：an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia 83, 14-19. Bongers, T., 1999. The Maturity Index, the evolution of nematode life history traits, adaptive radiation and cp-scaling. Plant and Soil 212, 13-22. Bongers, T., De Goede, R.G.M., Korthals, G.W., Yeates, G.W., 1995. Proposed changes of c-p classification for nematodes. Russian Journal of Nematology 3, 61–62. Bongers, T., Bongers, M.,1998. Functional diversity of nematodes. Applied Soil Ecology 10, 239-251. Bongers, T., Ferris, H., 1999. Nematode community structure as a bioindicator in environmental monitoring. Trends in Evolution and Ecology 14, 224-228. Dam, R.A., Camilleri, C., Finlayson, C.M., 1998. The potential of rapid assessment techniques as early warning indicators of wetland degradation: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality 13, 297-312. Ekschmitt, K., Bakonyi, G., Bongers, M., Bongers, T., Boström, S., Dogan, H., Harrison, A., Nagy, P., O Donnell, A.G., Papatheodorou, E.M., Sohlenius, B., Stamou, G.P., Wolters, V., 2001. Nematode community structure as indicator of soil functioning in European grassland soils. European Journal of Soil Biology 37, 263−268. Ettema, C.H., Bongers, T., 1993. Characterization of nematode colonization and succession in disturbed soil using the Maturity Index. Biology and fertility of soil 16, 79-85. Griffiths, B.S., 1990. A comparison of microbial-feeding nematodes and protozoa in the rhizosphere of different plants. Biology and Fertility of Soils 9, 83-88. Hanel, L., 2004. Colonization of chemical factory wastes by soil nematodes. Pedobiologia 48, 373-381. Hyvönen, R., Persson, T., 1990. Effects of acidification and liming on feeding groups of nematodes in coniferous forest soils. Biology and fertility of soil 9, 205-210. Mailia, M., Cloete, T.E., 2005. The use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants-perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: a review. International Biodeterioration&Biodegradation 55, 1-8. Nagy, P., 1999. Effect of an artificial metal pollution on nematode assemblage of a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. Plant and Soil 212, 35-43. Neher, D., 2001. Role of nematodes in soil health and their use as indicators. Journal of Nematology 33, 161-168. Neher, D.A., Campbell, C.L., 1994. Nematode communities and microbial biomass in soils with annual and perennial crops. Applied Soil Ecology 1, 17–28. Popovici, I., 1992. Nematodes as indicators of ecosystem disturbance due to pollution. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai. Biologia 37, 15–27. Thornton, C.W., Matlack, G.R., 2002. Long-term disturbance effects in the nematode communities of south Mississippi woodlands. Journal of Nematology 34, 88-97. Salvado, H., Palomo, A., Mas, M., Puigagut, J., Gracia, P., 2004. Dynamics of nematodes in a high organic loading rotating biological contactors. Water research 38, 2571-2578. Spellman, F.R., Drinan, J.E., 2001. Stream ecology and self-purification. 2nd Edition. CRC press. Yeates, G.W., Bongers, T., De Goede, R.G.M., Freckman, D.W., Georgieva, S.S., 1993. Feeding habits in soil nematode families and genera--an outline for soil ecologists. Journal of Nematology 25(3), 315-331. Yeates, G.W., 1994. Modification and qualification of the nematode Maturity Index. Pedobiologia 38, 97–101. Yeates, G.W., 2003. Nematodes as soil indicators: functional and biodiversity aspects. Biology and fertility of soil 37, 199-210. Zullini, A., 1976. Nematodes as indicators of river pollution. Nematologia Mediterranea 4, 13-22. Zullini, A., Peretti, E., 1986. Lead pollution and moss-inhabiting nematodes of an industrial area. Water Air and Soil Pollution 27, 403-410.||摘要:||
線蟲是地球上數量最多而且也是構造最簡單的多細胞動物，前人研究指出線蟲族群普遍存在於自然或已污染的水域環境中。由於人類的生活和河川環境息息相關，所以必須要有適當的監測方法來管理河川環境確保其生態平衡；本文旨在研究線蟲作為河川污染生物指標之模式建立。在北港溪流域的調查中，共採樣6995隻線蟲分屬於19個科、30個屬、7種食性以及5種colonizer-persister（c-p）值。底質樣本之線蟲個體數、科別數及屬別數，皆較水體樣本豐富。在水體及底質樣本中分別以 Aphelenchoididae 及 Monhysteridae 出現頻率最高，優勢屬分別是Aphelenchoides 及Eumonhystera 。在四個季節及四種河川污染等級中，最高之線蟲個體數分別於冬季及中度污染水域被發現。食性方面，未受污染水域以真菌取食性線蟲為顯著群集，污染水域之顯著群集則以細菌與基質取食性線蟲為主。僅嚴重污染之上游淡水區及下游淡鹹水交界區分別以 Monhysteridae 及 Xyalidae 為顯著群集，未受污染區域未發現顯著線蟲群集。線蟲colonizer-persister (c-p) 群集以c-p2之比例為最高，僅c-p1線蟲群集會隨污染等級增加數量。每一測站每次調查所得之 Maturity Index（MI）和 River Pollution Index （RPI）雖無顯著之相關性，但每一測站兩年期間之底質MI平均值和RPI平均值卻呈現反比關係，由此可知以線蟲做為生物指標，確實可反映河川環境長期受到衝擊的程度。各測站兩年期間水體之 Nematode Channel Ratio （NCR）調查結果反映不同污染源的差異，NCR 數值以工業污染源之監測站最低，家庭排放污染源之監測站數值最高。水體之 NCR 與 RPI 平均值成正比關係，隨著污染等級上升，NCR 值亦隨之增加。由此可知污染源決定NCR 與 RPI的關係，而MI與RPI之關係不受污染源之影響。以 PRIMER v6 進行分析，發現線蟲之科及屬的群集皆有明顯的監測站間差異，每一監測站的線蟲種類、數量、 MI 值及食性和環境因子皆有明顯的相關性。分析影響線蟲群集分佈的主要環境因子是 BOD5 、土壤質地及 pH 值。四個季節之線蟲群集並無差異。在監測站位置及季節的多樣性分析方面，河川下游監測站及夏天的多樣性較高。線蟲做為河川污染生物指標之模式建立已於本研究初步完成，線蟲的數量與群集結構在河川長期污染的質或量的監控上是可信賴的生物指標。由研究結果歸納1.線蟲分佈範圍涵蓋不同土壤質地、不同污染等級區域，顯示其分佈具有普遍性。2.線蟲的科群集並無明顯的季節差異，日後採集無須擔心季節問題。3.線蟲體積小，在逆境中移動範圍不大，因此容易看出環境長期污染對生態的影響。4.線蟲的食性種類多且食性和環境因子有明顯的相關性，可作為污染的參考指標。5.僅需將線蟲鑑定至科的層級，應用時可大幅降低其困難度。6.線蟲採樣及分離方法簡單，非生物專家也可方便施行。此模式可供日後河川環境監測、河川棲地復育及相關研究使用。
Nematodes are ubiquitous and certain species could persist in polluted or disturbed river environment. Versatile and precise methods of monitoring for river pollution are needed because of the tight relation between human life and river environment. The purpose of this study is to establish a model using nematodes as bioindicators for river pollution to compliment the conventional monitoring method. Nematode communities of Beigang river catchments in Taiwan were investigated. A total of 6995 nematodes were identified belonging to 19 families, 30 genera, 7 different feeding types and 5 different c-p groups. The pooled data showed that nematode abundance in the sediment was more than water samples. Aphelenchoididae and Monhysteridae were the most dominant group in the water and sediment samples, respectively. The two genera Aphelenchoides and Eumonhystera showed a wide range of relative abundances in both water and sediments. The highest abundance of nematodes was found during winter at moderately polluted areas. At unpolluted region, fungal feeder was the dominant population, while at the polluted regions bacterial and substrate feeder was pronounced. In upper and lower serious pollutant sites, Monhysteridae and Xyalidae were dominant population, respectively. The highest abundance belonged to c-p2 group but only c-p1 group positively correlated with the pollution level. There were no significant correlations between Maturity Index (MI) and River Pollution Index (RPI) from the catchment data, yet, the mean MI of sediments from each site was negatively correlated with the mean RPI. Different statistic results between each sample and pooled data indicated that the nematode bioindicator could reflect long-term disturbance in the river. The values of NCR of water samples from the contamination sources of agriculture, industry and sewage were different. The lowest value of NCR was at the site with industrial pollution and the highest value at the site with sewage. Water samples from seriously polluted sites were characterized by communities with high NCR, indicating that the NCR and water pollution classes were positively correlated. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. Families and genera of nematodes were significantly different between sampling sites. Statistic analysis showed the kinds, abundance, MI values and feeding types of nematodes also had significantly correlation with environment factors. Nematodes diversity was higher in downriver as well as during summer season, but there were no statistical differences between seasons. Our data suggested that BOD5, soil texture and pH were the main environment parameters to affect nematode communities. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Nematodes were found in both clean and pollutant environments, in every soil type, under all climatic conditions, their communities had significant correlation with environment factors. Identified nematodes to the family level could be achieved by simple morphological characters. Nematode sampling and extraction methods were relatively easy, with these advantages, this model could become a useful tool for monitoring river environments, habitats recovery and environmental biology studies.
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