Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31427
標題: 植物寄生性線蟲對殺線蟲劑之感受性
Susceptibility of plnat parasitic nematodes to nematicides
作者: 趙育興
Chao, Yung-shing
關鍵字: nematicide;殺線蟲劑;nematode;fenamiphos;carbofuran;foliar application;IC50;線蟲;芬滅松;加保扶;葉面施用;半數抑制濃度
出版社: 植物病理學系
摘要: 
應用昆蟲學家偵測抗藥性的方法, 以對機數分析求得芬滅松
(fenamiphos) 及加保扶(Carboguran) 的半數抑制濃度 (IC50,μ g/ml
),做為定測線蟲對殺線蟲劑感受性的方法。 加保扶及芬滅松對南方根瘤
線蟲之 IC50 分別為 24.04 與 3.59, 南方根腐線蟲為9.88 與 3.47,
以及葉芽線蟲為 32.31 與 9.50。收集田間根瘤線蟲樣本,以已知殺線蟲
劑 IC50 偵測線蟲的感受性。花生根瘤線蟲與水稻根瘤線蟲對芬滅松及加
保扶感受性最為敏感,花生根瘤線蟲以加保扶及芬滅松處裡的麻痺百分比
,以及水洗去除殺線蟲劑後恢復率分別為 72.5% 與- 4.85%, 92.7 與
- 10.8%; 水稻根瘤線蟲為 90.4% 與 5.06%,92.8% 與 17.92%。 南
方根瘤線蟲,加保扶處理可恢復活性,在芬滅松處理,水洗後不能恢復,
分別為 48.8% 與 57.38%,55.4% 與 14.4%。北方根瘤線蟲 (M. hapla)
對兩個藥劑的反應與南方根瘤線蟲相似, 但恢復的情形較明顯,分別為
40.5% 與 62.7%, 44.9%與 57.24%。爪哇根瘤線蟲則對加保扶十分敏感
82.0% 與 12.93% ,但對芬滅松其反應與北方根瘤線蟲相似,為 56.2%
與 72.95%。0.1 μ g/ml 芬滅松及加保扶可以影響葉芽線蟲的趨化性降
低到 10% 以下, 以 1 μ g/ml 處理 24 小時可減少其產卵數目至 50%
以下,芬滅松 20 μ g/ml 或加保扶 40 μ g/ml 才能完全抑制其產卵。
加保扶的藥效易受LT 配方及泥炭土的影響, 完全失去藥效,芬滅松則不
受泥炭土影響但受 LT 配方影響,藥效降為 74.2%。本實驗中,殺線蟲劑
可以在植物的根部中轉移,但其效果不明顯,以毆殺滅效果最好,能抑制
40% 的線蟲感染空心菜組織培養根系; 但經由經段節間注射,再以葉芽
線蟲做生物檢定證明,發現供試的殺線蟲劑皆可上下轉移。在葉面施用
10mg 毆殺滅可以抑制 50% 線蟲感染,但會抑制植株生長, 在植株地上
部注射 100 μ g 殺線蟲劑則可以保護植株根系 10 天以上,只有普伏松
明顯影響植株發育,芬滅松注射的莖段有焦黑死亡的現象。 在 10 μ g/
ml 的芬滅松及加保扶中添加 0.05% 的 Triton- x100 可以提高葉芽線蟲
的致死率到 20% 左右。 混合芬滅松及加保扶使用可以提高殺線蟲劑的藥
效。

Methods for nematicide-resistance detection had been developed
by LD50 testingof Probit analysis in insecticide researchs.
IC50 of nematodes to nonfumigantnematicides carbofuran and
fenamiphos was evaluated by touch-response method.The result
showed that IC50 of Carbofuran and Fenamiphos to
Meloidogyneincognita, Pratylenchus coffeae, and Aphelenchoides
besseyi are 24.04 and3.59, 9.88 and 3.47, 32.31 and 9.5
respectively. Differential sensitivity of2nd stage juveniles
of different isolates of root knot nematode to carbofuranand
fenamiphos at IC50 of M. incognita was detected. Generally, M.
arenariaand M. graminicola were most sensitive and less
recovery after removal ofnematicides. Paralysis rate of M.
arenaria to fenamiphos and carbofuran was0.927and 0.972,
0.725 and 0.804; M. graminicola was 0.928 and
0.881,0.904-0.151; M. hapla was 0.449 and 0.192, 0.405 and
0.151; M. incognita was0.554 and 0.474, 0.488 and 0.208; M.
incognita was 0.802 and 0.714, 0.526 and0.152. Chemotaxis of A.
besseyi to Saintpanlia ionanntha was inhibited at 0.1μ g/ml of
these two nematicides and the reproduction at 1 μ g/ml was
reducedto half. Nematode was localized on soil surface by two
layer of cellophane todetect nematicide efficiency in planting
media. The efficiency of nematicidewas reduced by organic
matter or soil amendements. And the efficiency ofcarbofuran
was reduced to zero in peat moss or in 0.05% LT
mixtureamended-soil. Nematicide transportation in root system
was detected usingexcised root of Ipomoea reptans growing
in the biocompartment apparatus.Oxamyl reduced nematode
infection more than 35%. Ipomoea reptans stempesticides
injection and foliar nematode bioassay provided a
conveniecntmethod to detect chemicals transportable in
phloem. Oxamyl, fenamiphos,carbofuran, marshel, and mocap were
bipolarly trasported. Maeshel, methomyl,and tamaron were only
transported upward. Foliar spray of 100mg of oxamyl
toMomoridica charantia or injected 100 μ g into Ipomoea
reptans stem protectedroot from M. incognita for at least
10days. 0.05% Triton- X100 incerasedefficiency of fenamiphos
and carbofuran at least 20% in nematode mortality.The
efficiency of fenamiphos and carbofuran cooperative appliaction
was higherthan only one nematicide.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31427
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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