Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3156
標題: 不同電鍍配方之銅基材與純錫之界面反應
Interfacial Reactions Between Pure Tin and Electroplated Copper Substrates Fabricated Using Different Formulas
作者: 吳哲儀
Wu, Je-Yi
關鍵字: 錫銅界面反應;Sn-Cu interfacail reaction;電鍍配方;electroplaing formula
出版社: 化學工程學系所
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摘要: 
隨著科技的進步,電子產品越往輕、薄、短、小、多功能且低成本的趨勢發展,當體積不斷地縮小時,電子元件中的接點勢必要具備更好的可靠度。近年來由於環保意識的抬頭,因此業界及學界皆積極尋找無鉛銲料替代傳統的錫鉛銲料。無鉛銲料的缺點就是Sn的含量較高,因此反應時會形成較多的介金屬化合物(intermetallic compound, IMC),同時也會增加凸塊下金屬層(under bump metallurgy, UBM)的消耗速率。然而目前較少研究探討不同電鍍配方製備出的銅基材對界面反應的影響,因此本實驗將探討三種電鍍配方製備出的銅基材對Sn-Cu界面反應的影響。
本實驗中由三種電鍍配方製備出的銅基材代號分別為PCS、PCSV、PC,其中PCS晶粒最大、PCSV次之、PC則最小,且三種基材之優選方向不儘相同。實驗結果顯示在空氣冷卻條件下,PCS及PCSV迴銲90秒時生成的Cu6Sn5為棱柱狀且具有排列規則性,反應600秒後棱柱狀Cu6Sn5則轉為扇貝狀,而PC生成的Cu6Sn5在迴銲過程中則不具特殊排列方式且表面具有許多孔洞。在冰水冷卻條件下三種基材生成的Cu6Sn5晶粒較緻密且未有明顯的排列方向。三種基材生成的IMC厚度並未有太大的差異,且反應級數數值約在0.33的範圍,其反應機制屬於晶界擴散。
在溫度150°C、170°C、200°C反應時,Cu/Sn界面會生成Cu6Sn5及Cu3Sn相。Cu6Sn5晶粒隨著熱處理時間及反應溫度增加而變大,PCS及PCSV生成的IMC較穩定的成長,而PC生成的Cu3Sn相則會產生大量的Kirkendall voids,這些孔洞將會抑制Cu的擴散,並且誘發IMC的二次成長。在150°C時此反應機制並不明顯,在170°C經熱處理600小時後,可以觀察到複雜的多層IMC結構,而在200°C熱處理72小時同樣可以觀察到此現象。Kirkendall voids誘發IMC二次成長的機制將會產生大量的IMC,進而影響銲點的可靠度。

The trend of electronic products development is toward lighter, thinner, smaller, multi-fuctional, and lower cost with advanced technology. When the volume continuously shrinks, the solder joints in electronic products must have better reliability. In recent years, due to the environmental concerns, not only the packaging industry but the academic institutes aggressively search for other lead-free solders to substitute the conventional eutectic SnPb solder. However, the disadvantage of lead-free solders is the more Sn content, so it will cause excessive intermetallic compound growth and consume the under bump metallurgy at a faster rate. The interfacial reactions between pure tin and electroplated copper substrates fabricated using different formulas were investigated in this thesis.
PCS, PCSV, and PC represented the three different electroplated Cu substrates, respectively. The grain size of PCS was the largest and PC was the smallest. The results showed that PCS and PCSV formed prism Cu6Sn5 after reflow for 90s and the Cu6Sn5 grains would align regularly in air-cooling condition. The morphology of Cu6Sn5 tranformed to scallop after reflow for 600s. The PC-formed Cu6Sn5 didn’t presented specific texture and there were many voids existing on the Cu6Sn5 surface. In the icewater-cooling condition, the Cu6Sn5 phase formed on the three substrates had finer grains and didn’t present specific texture. In the reflow process, the IMC thickness didn’t have significant differences for the three cases. In addition, the reaction orders of three cases were about 0.33, indicating that the kinetics of IMC growth belonged to grain boundary diffusion.
The Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn phases were formed at the Cu/Sn interface at 150, 170, 200°C. The Cu6Sn5 grains became bigger with aging time and increasing reaction temperature. The IMC formed by PCS and PCSV could grow more stablely. However, because the Cu3Sn formed by PC would produce many Kirkendall voids, these voids would restrain the Cu diffusion and then induced secondary IMC formation. At 150°C, this mechanism wasn’t obvious but it could be observed complexed and multi-layered IMC structure after aging for 600 hrs at 170°C. The multi-layered IMC structure also could be found after aging at 200°C for 72 hrs. The mechanism of Kirkendall-voids- induced secondary IMC formation would form large IMCs and had bad influence on the solder joints reliability.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3156
其他識別: U0005-1007201300305300
Appears in Collections:化學工程學系所

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