Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Interfacial Reactions Between Pure Tin and Electroplated Copper Substrates Fabricated Using Different Formulas
|關鍵字:||錫銅界面反應;Sn-Cu interfacail reaction;電鍍配方;electroplaing formula||出版社:||化學工程學系所||引用:||參考文獻  M. J. Rizvi, Y. C. Chan, C. Bailey, H. Lu, and M. N. Islam, “Effect of adding 1wt% Bi into the Sn–2.8Ag–0.5Cu solder alloy on the intermetallic formations with Cu-substrate during soldering and isothermal aging,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 407, pp. 208-214 (2006).  A. Sharif and Y. C. Chan, “Liquid and solid state interfacial reactions of Sn–Ag–Cu and Sn–In–Ag–Cu solders with Ni–P under bump metallization,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 504, pp. 431-435 (2006).  K. S. Kim, S. H. Huh, and K. Suganuma, “Effects of fourth alloying additive on microstructures and tensile properties of Sn–Ag–Cu alloy and joints with Cu,” Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 43, pp. 259-267 (2003).  S. Kang, D. Leonard, D.-Y. Shih, L. Gignac, D. W. Henderson, S. Cho, and J. Yu, “Interfacial reactions of Sn-Ag-Cu solders modified by minor Zn alloying addition,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 35, pp. 479-485 (2006).  M. G. Cho, S. K. Seo, and H. M. Lee, “Wettability and interfacial reactions of Sn-based Pb-free solders with Cu–xZn alloy under bump metallurgies,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 474, pp. 510-516 (2009).  H. F. Zou, H. J. Yang, and Z. F. Zhang, “Morphologies, orientation relationships and evolution of Cu6Sn5 grains formed between molten Sn and Cu single crystals,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 56, pp. 2649-2662 (2008).  J. M. Wang, K. J. Wang, and J. G. Duh, “Cu Substrates with Different Grain Sizes,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 40, pp. 1549-1555 (2011).  M. L. Huang, T. Loeher, A. Ostmann, and H. Reichl, “Role of Cu in dissolution kinetics of Cu metallization in molten Sn-based solders,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, pp. 181908-3 (2005).  鍾文仁、陳佑任，「IC封裝製程與CAE應用」，全華圖書 (2005).  陳信文、陳立軒、林永森、陳志銘，「電子構裝技術與材料」，高立圖書 (2004).  田民波、顏怡文，「半導體電子元件構裝技術」，五南圖書 (2007).  許明哲，「先進微電子3D-IC構裝」，五南圖書 (2011).  竇維平、黃河樹、蘇勇誌、顏銘瑤，「電鍍銅添加劑在IC及IC構裝基板上的應用」，台灣化學工程學會，第50卷，第4期，第14-29頁 (2003).  Z. Nagy, J. P. Blaudeau, N. C. Hung, L. A. Curtiss, and D. J. Zurawski, “Chloride Ion Catalysis of the Copper Deposition Reaction,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 142, pp. L87-L89, (1995).  W. P. Dow and C. W. Liu, “Evaluating the Filling Performance of a Copper Plating Formula Using a Simple Galvanostat Method,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 153, pp. C190-C194 (2006).  W. P. Dow, M. Y. Yen, C. W. Liu, and C. C. Huang, “Enhancement of filling performance of a copper plating formula at low chloride concentration,” Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 53, pp. 3610-3619 (2008).  W. P. Dow, M. Y. Yen, W. B. Lin, and S. W. Ho, “Influence of Molecular Weight of Polyethylene Glycol on Microvia Filling by Copper Electroplating,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 152, pp. C769-C775 (2005).  莊東漢、吳醒非、黃貴偉、顏秀芳、林修任，「銲錫接點界面反應生成金屬形態及其動力學」，界面科學會誌，第26卷，第2期，第71-82頁 (2004).  劉雨雯，「RoHS綠色指令：全球環境規範&無鉛焊接技術」，龍璟文化 (2005).  白蓉生，「電路板與無鉛焊接」，台灣電路板協會，桃園 (2006).  D. A. Porter and K. E. Eassterling, Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys (1992).  P. Nash and A. Nash, “Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams,” ed. T. B. Massalski, ASM, Materials Park, Vol. 3 (1990).  K. N. Tu and R. D. Thompson, “Kinetics of interfacial reaction in bimetallic Cu Sn thin films,” Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 30, pp. 947-952 (1982).  Z. Mei, A. J. Sunwoo, and J. W. Morris, “Analysis of low-temperature intermetallic growth in copper-tin diffusion couples,” Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 23, pp. 857-864 (1992).  H. K. Kim, H. K. Liou, and K. N. Tu, “Three-dimensional morphology of a very rough interface formed in the soldering reaction between eutectic SnPb and Cu,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 66, pp. 2337-2339 (1995).  H. K. Kim and K. N. Tu, “Rate of consumption of Cu in soldering accompanied by ripening,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 67, pp. 2002-2004 (1995).  H. K. Kim, K. N. Tu, and P. A. Totta, “Ripening-assisted asymmetric spalling of Cu-Sn compound spheroids in solder joints on Si wafers,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 68, pp. 2204-2206 (1996).  A. A. Liu, H. K. Kim, K. N. Tu, and P. A. Totta, “Spalling of Cu6Sn5 spheroids in the soldering reaction of eutectic SnPb on Cr/Cu/Au thin films,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 80, pp. 2774-2780 (1996).  A. M. Gusak and K. N. Tu, “Kinetic theory of flux-driven ripening,” Physical Review B, Vol. 66, p. 115403 (2002).  D. Ma, W. D. Wang, and S. K. Lahiri, “Scallop formation and dissolution of Cu-Sn intermetallic compound during solder reflow,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 91, pp. 3312-3317 (2002).  J. Gorlich, G. Schmitz, and K. N. Tu, “On the mechanism of the binary Cu/Sn solder reaction,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, pp. 053106-3 (2005).  J. O. Suh, K. N. Tu, and N. Tamura, “Dramatic morphological change of scallop-type Cu6Sn5 formed on (001) single crystal copper in reaction between molten SnPb solder and Cu,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, pp. 051907-3 (2007).  Y. Cui and M. Huang, “Comparative study of interfacial reactions of High-Sn lead-free solders on single crystal Cu and on polycrystalline Cu,” in Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, pp. 593-596 (2009).  N. Zhao, X. Pan, H. Ma, C. Dong, S. Guo, W. Lu, and L. Wang, “The liquid structure of Sn-based lead-free solders and the correlative effect in liquid-solid interfacial reaction,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 98, p. 012029 (2008).  M. Yang, M. Li, L. Wang, Y. Fu, J. Kim, and L. Weng, “Growth behavior of Cu6Sn5 grains formed at an Sn3.5Ag/Cu interface,” Materials Letters, Vol. 65, pp. 1506-1509 (2011).  M. Yang, M. Li, L. Wang, Y. Fu, J. Kim, and L. Weng, “Cu6Sn5 Morphology Transition and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Sn-Ag Solder Joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 40, pp. 176-188 (2011).  H. A. Pan, C. P. Lin, and C. M. Chen, “Interfacial Reaction of Molten Sn on a Strained Cu Electroplated Layer,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 41, pp. 2470-2477 (2012).  X. Lin and L. Luo, “Void Evolution in Sub-100-Micron Sn-Ag Solder Bumps during Multi-reflow and Aging and its Effects on Bonding Reliability,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 37, pp. 307-313 (2008).  K. S. Kim, S. H. Huh, and K. Suganuma, “Effects of intermetallic compounds on properties of Sn–Ag–Cu lead-free soldered joints,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 352, pp. 226-236 (2003).  D. Frear, D. Grivas, and J. W. Morris, “The effect of Cu6Sn5 whisker precipitates in bulk 60Sn-40Pb solder,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 16, pp. 181-186 (1987).  M. H. Lu and K. C. Hsieh, “Sn-Cu Intermetallic Grain Morphology Related to Sn Layer Thickness,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 36, pp. 1448-1454 (2007).  K. Zeng, R. Stierman, T. C. Chiu, D. Edwards, K. Ano, and K. N. Tu, “Kirkendall void formation in eutectic SnPb solder joints on bare Cu and its effect on joint reliability,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, pp. 024508-8 (2005).  C. Y. Liu, K. N. Tu, T. T. Sheng, C. H. Tung, D. R. Frear, and P. Elenius, “Electron microscopy study of interfacial reaction between eutectic SnPb and Cu/Ni(V)/Al thin film metallization,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, pp. 750-754 (2000).  J. Y. Kim and J. Yu, “Effects of residual impurities in electroplated Cu on the Kirkendall void formation during soldering,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, pp. 092109-3 (2008).  S. H. Kim and J. Yu, “Secondary IMC formation induced by Kirkendall voiding in Cu/Sn–3.5Ag solder joints,” Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 25, pp. 1854-1858 (2010).  C. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, C. P. Lin, and W. C. Su, “Morphological Evolution of the Reaction Product at the Sn-9wt.%Zn/Thin-Film Cu Interface,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 37, pp. 1605-1610 (2008).  X. Deng, G. Piotrowski, J. J. Williams, and N. Chawla, “Influence of initial morphology and thickness of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallics on growth and evolution during thermal aging of Sn-Ag solder/Cu joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 32, pp. 1403-1413 (2003).  B. F. Dyson, T. R. Anthony, and D. Turnbull, “Interstitial Diffusion of Copper in Tin,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 38, pp. 3408-3408 (1967).  M. Onishi and H. Fujibuchi, “Reaction-Diffusion in the Cu-Sn System,” Transactions of the Japan Institute of Metals, Vol. 16, p. 539 (1975).||摘要:||
隨著科技的進步，電子產品越往輕、薄、短、小、多功能且低成本的趨勢發展，當體積不斷地縮小時，電子元件中的接點勢必要具備更好的可靠度。近年來由於環保意識的抬頭，因此業界及學界皆積極尋找無鉛銲料替代傳統的錫鉛銲料。無鉛銲料的缺點就是Sn的含量較高，因此反應時會形成較多的介金屬化合物(intermetallic compound, IMC)，同時也會增加凸塊下金屬層(under bump metallurgy, UBM)的消耗速率。然而目前較少研究探討不同電鍍配方製備出的銅基材對界面反應的影響，因此本實驗將探討三種電鍍配方製備出的銅基材對Sn-Cu界面反應的影響。
在溫度150°C、170°C、200°C反應時，Cu/Sn界面會生成Cu6Sn5及Cu3Sn相。Cu6Sn5晶粒隨著熱處理時間及反應溫度增加而變大，PCS及PCSV生成的IMC較穩定的成長，而PC生成的Cu3Sn相則會產生大量的Kirkendall voids，這些孔洞將會抑制Cu的擴散，並且誘發IMC的二次成長。在150°C時此反應機制並不明顯，在170°C經熱處理600小時後，可以觀察到複雜的多層IMC結構，而在200°C熱處理72小時同樣可以觀察到此現象。Kirkendall voids誘發IMC二次成長的機制將會產生大量的IMC，進而影響銲點的可靠度。
The trend of electronic products development is toward lighter, thinner, smaller, multi-fuctional, and lower cost with advanced technology. When the volume continuously shrinks, the solder joints in electronic products must have better reliability. In recent years, due to the environmental concerns, not only the packaging industry but the academic institutes aggressively search for other lead-free solders to substitute the conventional eutectic SnPb solder. However, the disadvantage of lead-free solders is the more Sn content, so it will cause excessive intermetallic compound growth and consume the under bump metallurgy at a faster rate. The interfacial reactions between pure tin and electroplated copper substrates fabricated using different formulas were investigated in this thesis.
PCS, PCSV, and PC represented the three different electroplated Cu substrates, respectively. The grain size of PCS was the largest and PC was the smallest. The results showed that PCS and PCSV formed prism Cu6Sn5 after reflow for 90s and the Cu6Sn5 grains would align regularly in air-cooling condition. The morphology of Cu6Sn5 tranformed to scallop after reflow for 600s. The PC-formed Cu6Sn5 didn’t presented specific texture and there were many voids existing on the Cu6Sn5 surface. In the icewater-cooling condition, the Cu6Sn5 phase formed on the three substrates had finer grains and didn’t present specific texture. In the reflow process, the IMC thickness didn’t have significant differences for the three cases. In addition, the reaction orders of three cases were about 0.33, indicating that the kinetics of IMC growth belonged to grain boundary diffusion.
The Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn phases were formed at the Cu/Sn interface at 150, 170, 200°C. The Cu6Sn5 grains became bigger with aging time and increasing reaction temperature. The IMC formed by PCS and PCSV could grow more stablely. However, because the Cu3Sn formed by PC would produce many Kirkendall voids, these voids would restrain the Cu diffusion and then induced secondary IMC formation. At 150°C, this mechanism wasn’t obvious but it could be observed complexed and multi-layered IMC structure after aging for 600 hrs at 170°C. The multi-layered IMC structure also could be found after aging at 200°C for 72 hrs. The mechanism of Kirkendall-voids- induced secondary IMC formation would form large IMCs and had bad influence on the solder joints reliability.
|Appears in Collections:||化學工程學系所|
Show full item record
TAIR Related Article
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.