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Intergrated Control of Bacterial Wilt of Tomato
在溫室試驗，螢光假單胞菌（fluorescent pseudomonads）以三種或四種菌株混合施用防治番茄青枯病之效果比單一菌株施用者為佳。螢光假單胞菌混合菌株之防治效果因土壤中青枯病菌濃度、青枯病菌菌株、植株生長溫度和土壤添加SH混合物的使用，此單獨使用螢光假單胞菌或土壤來源不同而有差異。螢光假單胞菌混合菌株配合土壤添加物較能減低發病程度。在大南10月至12月間的田間試驗，第一次的結果，在番茄品種、土壤添加物及螢光假單胞菌之各處理中，僅品種間之發病率有差異，亞蔬四號品種之發病率均較農友301低，但添加物及螢光假單胞菌各處理與未處理間則未達顯著差異；第二次的結果，於移植田間32天後，SH及UM混合物配合螢光假單胞菌的使用與未處理者比較雖降低發病指數，但差異也不顯著。青枯病菌在土壤中30分鐘之致死溫度為49°C，且不因菌株及含水量不同而有差異。當土壤溫度在45°C時，150~180分鐘後即不偵測不到青枯病菌存在；在40°C時，於第5天偵測不到。土壤以65□m厚的透明PE塑膠布覆蓋，做土壤太陽能（soil solarization）處理，在亞蔬中心的試驗田，82年6∼7月間，可使土表下15公分深的土壤溫度達46°C，較未覆蓋者提高8∼11°C；在土表下30公分深的土壤溫度可達40°C亦比未覆蓋者高６~7.5°C 。在大南試驗田，82年8∼9月間，覆蓋處理，在土表下15 公分深的土壤溫度可達44°C，比未覆蓋者高4.5∼10.5°C；土表下30公分深的土壤溫度可達37°C，比未覆蓋者高6∼8°C。土壤太陽能處理在兩處試驗田，均可使青枯病菌的族群密度下降。在亞蔬中心的試驗田，覆蓋處理者，完全偵測不到青枯病菌，而未覆蓋者，則含有3.6×103cfu/g dry soil；在大南的試驗田，覆蓋與未覆蓋處理的青枯病菌菌量分別為6.6×102及3.3×104 cfu/g dry siol 。在兩處試驗田，覆蓋處理後的總真菌數、總細菌數及螢光假單胞菌數雖較未覆蓋處理者低，但差異不顯著。土壤太陽能處理可促進番茄植株的生長；在移植38天後，覆蓋處理者可增加平均株高約12公分，此外土壤有未添加任何添加物時，覆蓋後的土壤，其交換性鈣及有效性磷會增加，而交換性鉀、有機碳及全氮量則會降低，對土壤pH值則無影響。利用螢光假單胞菌、土壤添加物及土壤太陽能處理綜合防治番茄青枯病之兩次試驗結果，螢光假單胞菌及土壤添加物之處理均未達顯著防治效果，而土壤太陽能處理，不論有無添加土壤添加物及施用螢光假單胞菌，在亞蔬中心試驗田者極顯著降低發病程度，但在大南試驗田則無防治效果。八種綠肥作物播種在混有青枯病菌的大里及大村土中，4週後，青枯病菌在根圈的群集量因作物之不同而有顯著差異，其中苜蓿油菜根圈的群集量最低，而太陽麻者最高，與番茄根圈的群集相近。根部組織之青枯病菌菌量，番茄農友301品種比較，在丙種土壤中除了太陽麻和埃及三葉草外，其餘均較低。以土壤混菌法接種九種綠肥，僅太陽麻5棵植株中一棵出現萎凋，如以莖中穿刺法接種，則太陽麻、營多藤、埃及三葉草、油菜及田菁均有不同之株數出現萎凋。將九種綠肥作物的植株片段分別以6%（W/W）的濃度加到含青枯病菌土壤中，四週後營多滕外均能顯著降低青枯病菌菌量，其中田菁及太陽麻可青枯病菌菌量下降至偵測不到之程度；又田菁以不同濃度添加時，4%(W/W)的濃度仍能顯著降低青枯病菌菌量，而2%則不能降低菌量。
In the greenhouse tests , root-dipping with mixture of three or four strains of fluorescent pseudomonads was more effectiven in controlling bacterial wilt of tomato than each strain alone. The control efficacy of mixed strains was affected by concentrations of Pseudomonas solanacearum in soil, strains of P. solanacearum, temperatures of plant growth and kinds of soil. Combination of soil amendment with SH mixture and root treatment wtih fluorescent pseudomonads reduced the disease severity more than with each treatment alone. The field control of the disease was conducted in the Tanan field during October to December. In the first field test, integration of tomato cultivars, soil amendments and root treatment with fluorescent pseudomonads was applied. but only tomato cultivars differed significantly in disease incidence; the disease incidence of cultivar Taichung ASVEG No. 4 was much lower than Known-You 301 in all treatments. In the second field test, the UM or SH mixture used as a soil amendment was aplied together with root treatment with fluoresecent pseudomonads, although the disease incidence of tomato Known-You 301(32 days after tranplanting) was reduced by the treatment, but was not statistically significant. The thermal death time for P. solanacearum at b40, 45 and 49C were 5 days, 150-180 mins and 30 mins, respectively. The time of thermal death for P. solanacearum at 49C are not affected by water contents of soil and strains of P. solanacearum. Solar heating of soil by mulching with plastic polyethylene film (65□m thick) was studied as a disease control measure. At A VRDC field, maximal temperatures of mulched soil at depths of 15 and 30 cm were 46C and 40C, respectively, while those at Tanan field were 44C and 37C, respectively. Temperatures at depth of 15cm in the solarized soils of A VRDC and Tanan fields were 8-11 and 4.5-10.5C higher than those in the non-solarized soils, respectively, and the temperature differences at depth of 30 cm were 6-7.5 and 6-8C, respectively. The population density of P. solanacearun was reduced in the two solarized soils. In the A VRDC field, the population of P. solanacearum was reduced to not detectable level in solarized soil. In the Tanan field population of P.solanacerum in the solarized and non-solarized soil were 6.6×102 and 3.3×104 cfu/g dry soil than in the nonsolarized soil, respectively.The populations of total fungi, total bacteria and fluorescent pseudomonads were lower in the solarized soil , but were not significantly different. The tomato plants grown in solarized soil increased about 12cm in plant height compared with those grown in non-solarized soil 38 days after transplanting. Solarized soil showed an increase in the concentration of exchangeable calcium and available phophorus, a decrease in the concentration of exchangeable potassium, organic carbon and total nitrogen, and no change in soil pH. Integrated disease control by soil solarization, soil amendments and fluorescent pseudomonads reduced greatly the incidence of bacterial wilt of tomato in the AVRDC field test, but not in the Tanan field test. The disease reduction in the AVRDC field test, however , was mainly due to soil solarization. Populations of P. solanacearum in the rhizosphere differed among eight green manure crops four weeks after sowing in the Tali and Tatsun soils; the population was lowest in alfalfa and rape, and was highest in sun hemp which was similar to that in tomato rhizosphere. Population of P. solanacearum on/in root tissues of green manure crops except sun hemp and egyptoan clover were lower compared with that of tomato Known-Yon 301 cultivar. Inoculation of nine green manure croops with P. solanacearum by soil infestarion,only sun hemp was susceptible and resulted in the disease incidence of 20%, while by stem inoculation, sun hemp, intortum clover, egyptian clover, rape and sesbania were susceptible. Amendment of soil with the green manure residues except intortum clover at the rate of 60%(w/w)significantly reduced the population of P. solanacearum. The sesbania and sun hemp residues were most effective and reduced the bacterial population to the not detectable level. Sesbania residue amanded at 4% still could significantly reduce the population of P.solanacearum, but not at 2%.
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