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Studies on Characteristics of Foliar Fluorescent Pseudomonads from Taiwan
|作者:||林元春||關鍵字:||Foliar fluorescent pseudomonads;螢光假單胞菌;Taiwan plant;台灣植物||出版社:||植物病理學研究所||摘要:||
於台灣不同地區18種作物及20種野生植物葉表上分離得到螢光假單胞菌共207株。以作物葉表上分離之151株螢光假單胞菌進行生理生化測試，結果得悉此些螢光假單胞菌均可產生氧化酵素與精氨酸二水解酵素，且不引起菸草葉片之過敏性反應，然依其在他項生理生化反應上之差異，可將其分成A、B、C、D及E等五群，而以C群菌株分布最廣，普遍存在於各地及各類作物上，其中A群菌株與Pseudomonas aeruginosa特性相似，B群菌株與P. marginalis特性相似， C群菌株與P. putida特性相似，D群菌株則與P. fluorescens特性相似，且可分成D1、D2與D3等三小群，其特性則分別與P. fluorescens與P. putida之biovar I III及IV等相近，而E群菌株之特性則介於P. fluorescens與P.putida間。葉表螢光假單胞菌大部分為腐生，然測試之P. aeruginose、P. marginalis及部份之P. fluorescnes biovar V菌株對馬鈴薯切片具軟腐能力，而對蔬菜組織之致腐能力則較Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora P. 為弱，此外aeruginosa菌株以人工接種亦可引起洋蔥內部之褐變。在作物葉表上所分離之螢光假單胞菌中有8.6%之菌株對鏈微素之抗性可達1500ppm以上，而有77.5%之菌株對CuSO4‧5H2O之抗性係大於500ppm，又在所測試之葉表螢光假單胞菌168個菌株中有24個菌株在-10℃時具有冰核活性，而高海拔(≧500m)分離到具冰核活性之葉表螢光假單胞菌的比例(22.9%)，較由平地分離者(10.8%)為高，且其冰核活性亦較強。在所測試之87個螢光假單胞菌菌株中，有9.2∼35.1%之菌株在King''s B、NA及PDA培養基上，可對Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, X. c. pv. vesicatoria, X. c.pv. citri及X. c. pv. mangiferaeindicae之生長有明顯之抑制作用，而有16.1%之菌株可在PDA培養基上，對E. c. subsp. carotovora具抑制能力。
A total of 207 strains of foliar fluorescent pseudomonads (FP) were isolated from 18 crop species and 20 wild plant species at different localities in Taiwan. Characteristics of 151 strains isolated from various crops were examined. All these strains produced oxidase and arginine dihydrolase, but not induce hypersensitive reaction on tobacco leaves. They were differentiated into A, B, C, D and E groups based on their physiological and biochemical characteristics and their soft rot ablilty on potato slice. Among them strains in C group appeared to be the most dominant, they were readily isolated from various crops and localities. Strains in A group were similar to Pseudonomas aerugionsa while strains in B, C and D groups were similar to P. marginalis, P. putida and P. fluoresens, respectively. In addition, strains in D group could be further differentiated into D1, D2 and D3 subgroups with characterstics similar to P. fluorescens biovars I, III and V, respectively. Strains in E groups were those strains with characteristic that could not fit into either P. putida or P. fluorescens Most strains of foliar FP tested were saprophytic. However, all strains in P. aeruginosa, P. marginalis and some strains in P. fluorescens biovar V could induce soft rot on potato slice, but they were less virulent than Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora on vegetable tissues. In addition, strains of P. aeruginosa could induce internal browning of onions by artificial inoculation. In the streptomycin and copper sensitivity tests, 8.6% of strains isolated from crops were resistant to streptomycin sulfate higher than 1500ppm while 77.5% of strains were resistant to CuSO4．5H2O higher than 500ppm. Among the 168 strains tested, 24 strains of foliar FP showed ice nucleation activity at -10℃. The isolation frequency of foliar FP with ice nucleation activity from mountain areas (≧500m above sea level) was 22.9% while that from plain areas was 10.8%. Among the 87 strains of foliar FP tested, 9.2 ~35.1% of strains showed distinct inhibitory effect on the growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, X.c.pv. vesicatoria, X.c.pv.citri and X.c.pv. mangiferaeindicae on King''s B, NA and PDA media, while 16.1% of strains showed distinct inhibitory effect on the growth of E.c. subsp. carotovora on PDA medium.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理學系|
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