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Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Lily
|關鍵字:||biological control;生物防治;fusarium wilt of lily;antagonistic bacteria;nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum;百合萎凋病;拮抗細菌;無病原性鐮孢菌||出版社:||植物病理學系||摘要:||
百合鐮孢菌(Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii)引起百合種球基腐及根腐，嚴重影響百合的栽培。本試驗自不同地區之各種植物根圈及溪湖百合植株根圈共篩選了近200株拮抗細菌及無病原性鐮孢菌F. oxysporum，經溫室測試結果顯示兩者皆具有防治百合萎凋病的效果。以拮抗細菌防治Marco Polo品種之萎凋病，結果顯示經其中9株拮抗細菌菌株處理的百合植株發病率在15%以下，而對照組發病率高達95%。百合種植後第30天調查根圈拮抗細菌的族群數量在105 cfu/g soil以上。拮抗細菌在PDA平板上對病原菌的拮抗能力與其在溫室及田間試驗防治萎凋病的能力並無一致性。另一方面以無病原性F. oxysporum防治Casa Blanca品種之萎凋病，結果顯示經其中4株無病原性F. oxysporum菌株處理的百合植株發病率在23%以下，而對照組發病率高達100%。但是當土壤中病原菌密度達103 cfu/g soil時，種球處理無病原性F. oxysporum則無防治效果。F032菌株在多次的防治試驗中表現穩定的防治效果，處理F032菌株之Casa Blanca鱗片球、公斤球及開花球的發病率皆在20%以下，而對照組發病率則高達90~100%。施用F032菌株的方法以含F032孢子之泥炭土及滑石粉粉衣種球具有防治萎凋病的效果，以孢子懸浮液直接浸泡種球則無防治效果。利用F032菌株測試八種東方型百合品種，結果只有在Casa Blanca、 Star Gazer及Woodriff Memory具有防治萎凋病的效果，顯示F032菌株防治萎凋病的能力具有寄主專一性(host-specific)。另外發現F032菌株在溪湖砂壤才具有防治萎凋病的效果，於埔里紅壤則無效果，由於F032菌株篩選自溪湖Casa Blanca品種之根圈土壤，推測F032菌株防治效果在土壤質地及菌株來源上有相關性。田間試驗結果顯示，無病原性F. oxysporum F032菌株及拮抗細菌A014菌株施用於Casa Blanca品種鱗片球，存活率增加了65%以上。由以上的結果顯示生物防治在控制植物病害的工作上具有很大的潛力。
The basal rot, root and wilt of lily caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii are the most destructive soil-borne pathogen during its growing period. Nearly 200 antagonistic bacteria and nonpathogenic F. oxysporum were tested for the control of the Fusarium wilt disease of lily. Bulbs of lily were treated with the potential biocontrol agents and planted into the pathogen-infested soils in the greenhouse and in the field. Based on the results obtained, bulblets of cultivar ''Marco Polo'' treated with antagonistic bacteria before planting could significantly reduce the incidence of Fusarium wilt. Nine isolates of antagonistic bacteria were found to potentially reduce the incidence of the disease. The population densities of antagonistic bacteria were more than 105 cfu/g soil in the rhizosphere of the tested plants during the experiment. Meanwhile it was found that inhibition zone between antagonistic bacteria and pathogen on PDA did not relate to the effectiveness on the control of the disease. Some of the nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates isolated from the rhizosphere of lily were also found to be effective in controlling the disease, especially the F032 isolated from cultivar ''Casa Blanca'' providing significant and consistent disease control in the experiments. Bulbs treated with F032 before planting could reduce the disease incidence from 90 to 100% of the non-treatment to 20%. Bulbs coated with peat moss and talc powder then mixed with F032 was the most effective in controlling the Fusarium wilt of cultivars of ''Casa Blanca'', ''Star Gazer'' and ''Woodriff Memory'', while it was ineffective on other cultivars of ''Miami'', ''Le Reve'', ''Marco Polo'', ''Siberia'', and ''Mero star'' tested. Although F032 exhibited its potential in controlling the disease, the effect is depending on the methods of bulb treatments and planting environmental conditions. Bulbs dipping with spore suspension of F032 and planting in the low pH Pu-li red clay loam soil were found ineffective in controlling the disease. In the preliminary field experiment, F032 and antagonistic bacteria A014 were found the most promising bioagents for controlling the disease.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理學系|
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