Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31920
標題: 台灣火龍果胞囊線蟲之發生、鑑定及生態學研究
Occurrence, identification and ecological studies of the cactus nematode from dragon fruit in Taiwan
作者: 詹修語
Chan, Hsiu-Yu
關鍵字: 仙人掌胞囊線蟲;Cactodera cacti;仙人掌科植物;胞囊線蟲;火龍果;寄主範圍;鑑定;種內變異;形態;演化樹;Cactaceae;cyst nematode;dragon fruit;host range;identification;intra-species variation;morphology;phylogenetic tree
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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摘要: 
本研究於2011年首次在台灣中南部地區之火龍果田發現仙人掌胞囊線蟲Cactodera cacti。其胞囊呈現黃褐色檸檬形,尾端具有圓形孔洞,卵殼佈滿不規則突起之小點。二齡幼蟲呈蠕蟲狀,具有四條側線。本研究共調查11個縣市181個點數,並建立六個不同地區來源之仙人掌胞囊線蟲族群,將之培養於火龍果植株上,以此為蟲源進行後續試驗。以改良過的ITS區間引子對增幅七個族群的rDNA片段,皆得一條981鹼基對之條帶。28個clone經序列分析後共得16個haplotypes,以neighbor joining 方法畫演化樹,16個haplotype形成三個分支。由中台灣地區之族群所得的haplotype 9至16共8個haplotype與德國、伊朗之仙人掌胞囊線蟲的序列位於同一分支。因台灣火龍果首次進行育種之地區即位於中部,顯示此分支之序列可能較為原始,台灣仙人掌胞囊線蟲之擴散原點也可能位於中部地區。Cactodera cacti的寄主範圍曾被報導其包括仙人掌科、繖型花科及大戟科植物,本研究以5科共17種植物作為試驗對象,其中三角柱(Hylocereus triagularis), 猩猩丸(Mammillaria spinosiassima), 青王丸(Notocactus ottonis), 影清(Mammillaria sempervivi), 岩石獅子(Cereus peruvianus), 象牙丸錦(Coryphantha elephantidens) , 短毛丸(Echinopsis eyriesii) , Discocactus heptacanthus, 刺梨(Opuntia stricta var. dillenii)等仙人掌科植物,皆為Cactodera cacti之寄主,仙人掌科之金鯱(Echinocactus grusonii), 青柳(Rhipsalis cereuscula), 繖型花科之芹菜(Apium graveolens), 以及經濟作物甜菜根(Beta vulgaris), 馬鈴薯(Solanum tuberosum), 大豆(Glycine max)則否。將台灣仙人掌胞囊線蟲其胞囊置於水中並培養在4、16、20、24、28、32℃下所得之卵孵化率結果顯示各處理間無顯著性差異,但由於32℃培養下之二齡幼蟲活力較佳,因此生活史試驗乃將二齡幼蟲接種於火龍果植株,並培養在32℃下。第一次生活史試驗結果約為40天,第二次試驗為35天。Cactodera cacti於火龍果植株地上部並未造成任何病徵,其對台灣火龍果果實產量之影響尚待評估。

In August 2011, the cactus nematode Cactodera cacti were first observed on roots of dragon fruit (Holycereus spp.) in central and southern Taiwan. The brown lemon-shaped cysts show circumfenestrate on the vulva cone top with eggs inside, the egg shell was punctuate when observed under SEM. The Second-stage juvenile is vermiform, four incisures were observed in the lateral field. A total of 6 gerographical populations were established from the survey, and the nematodes were inoculated and maintained on dragon fruits for the following experiments. Using the modified primer set to amplify the rDNA from the 7 populations, all resulted a 981 bp fragment. After sequencing, 28 clones from the 7 population resulted in 16 haplotypes. The neighbor-joining phylogeny tree showed the haplotypes 9 to 16 from the middle Taiwan were in the same branch with the Germany and Iran isolates (accession number:AF498393 ; HQ260422). These haplotypes were found from the first breeding location of dragon fruit in central Taiwan, indicating the ancestor of current populations of C. cacti might come from central Taiwan. The reported hosts of C. cacti containing 3 families: Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Umbelliferae. Seventeen plant species from 5 families were included this study for the host range test. Among them, Hylocereus triagularis, Mammillaria spinosiassima, Notocactus ottonis, Mammillaria sempervivi, Cereus peruvianus, Coryphantha elephantidens, Echinopsis eyriesii, Discocactus heptacanthus, Opuntia stricta var. dillenii of the familiy Cactaceae proved to be the host of C. cacti. Cactaceae Echinocactus grusonii, Rhipsalis cereuscula, Umbelliferae Apium graveolens, and the economically important plants Beta vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, and Glycine max were not the host of C. cacti. In the hatching rate test, the cysts were put in water and incubate at 4, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32℃ for five days, respectively, the egg hatching rate under different temperature showed no significant difference between these treatments, however, J2 were more active under the 32℃ treatment. C. cacti was inoculated on dragon fruits, and incubated under 32℃ for the life cycle experiment. The nematode completed their life cycle at the 40th day in the first experiment and 35th in the second experiment. C. cacti caused no symptoms on the above-ground parts, and its damage to the dragon fruit yield should be investigated in the future.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31920
其他識別: U0005-0708201216211100
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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