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標題: 填充矽通孔之新穎電鍍鎳鎢合金配方
A Novel Nickel-Tungsten Alloy Plating Formula for Filling Through Silicon Vias
作者: 黃馨嫚
Huang, Hsin-Man
關鍵字: 填充矽通孔;Through Silicon Vias;合金電鍍;鎳鎢合金;Nickel-Tungsten Alloys
出版社: 化學工程學系所
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Three-dimensional (3D) chip stacking is a major focus in recent research and development of microelectronics, MEMS, and MOEMS technology. Through silicon vias (TSV) play a key role in IC chip stacking connections. A main advantage of TSV is the shortest chip-to-chip vertical interconnection, which allows for size reduction of the chip and reducing signal transmission delay. Electrodeposition plays an important role in TSV development, especially copper electrodeposition, which is a critical technology and generally used in 3D chip packaging.
In TSV technology, the thermo-mechanical fatigue may lead to the TSV interconnects failures because the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of copper is much higher than that of silicon. The package materials with different CTEs will induce large stresses at the interfaces. In order to overcome this problem, we choose tungsten to substitute copper. However, tungsten cannot be directly plated in an aqueous electrolytes, it can be co-deposited with iron group metals. Nickel-tungsten alloy has excellent corrosion resistance, wear resistance and mechanical strength, which is a favorable candidate.
Traditional process for TSV is dry process that includes the following step: (1) formation of vias by reactive ion etching; (2) formation of a SiO2 isolation layer; (3) deposition of a TiN barrier layer and a copper seed layer; (4) electrodeposition of copper inside the via. In our research, we reduce the procedure of TSV using the wet process to substitute barrier and seed layer with CoWP, and electrodeposition with Ni-W alloy to make a copper-free process. In other words, a copper-free TSV with simplified processing steps is fabricated leading to lower fabrication cost, moreover, a low-stress TSV filled with low CTE metals is also fabricated to improve the thermo-mechanical fatigue of TSV leading to better package reliability. The Ni-W alloy was plated using NiSO4 and NaWO4 electrolytes; the additives included suppressor, accelerator, and surfactant. This Ni-W plating formula can achieve bottom-up filling of TSV with an aspect of 3.2 and a diameter of 20μm.
其他識別: U0005-2407201221200300
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