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dc.contributorChih-Ming Chenen_US
dc.contributor.authorTseng, Yu-Juen_US
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dc.description.abstract面對多功能化的電子產品,其製造與使用過程都有可能對材料產生破壞,像是機械性應變,這是材料間熱膨脹係數(coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE)差異所造成的影響,可能會影響銲料/基材間銲料接點(solder joints)的可靠性(reliability)。本實驗宗旨為模擬外加應變對Ag/Sn界面反應之影響進行探討,選擇矽、銀和錫分別作為基材、銲料與電鍍層,再利用黃銅模具施加外加應變在Ag/Sn界面反應,並觀察受壓縮、拉伸與不受應變之界面反應及介金屬化合物(intermetallic compound, IMC)Ag3Sn相之成長速率與形態。 固態界面反應樣品結構為20-μm-Sn/30-μm-Ag/400±50μm-Si,施加條件為受拉伸應變、受壓縮應變與不受應變,將樣品置於熱處理溫度為150℃、170℃和200℃下,分別熱處理時間為24、72、120、240、360和480小時。隨著熱處理時間增加,IMC厚度增厚且只生成一種介金屬化合物Ag3Sn相。實驗結果發現施加應變使Ag3Sn相成核速率加快,造成晶粒尺寸小且數量多,同時,生成Ag3Sn相所需克服的活化能也增加,造成其生長速率下降。除上述明顯變化的現象,另發現Ag3Sn相平均厚度竟沒有明顯的差異,考慮材料本身特性推測Ag擁有較小彈性模數和Ag3Sn相熔點低,容易釋放施加的應變,因此施加應變對Ag3Sn相厚度沒有影響。 液固界面反應樣品結構為1.3±0.07-mg-Sn銲料/30-μm-Ag/400±50-μm-Si,施加條件為受拉伸應變、受壓縮應變與不受應變,將樣品置於熱處理溫度為255℃下,分別迴銲時間為8、10、12、15、20和60分鐘,同樣只生成Ag3Sn相。Ag3Sn相晶粒成長的趨勢,循著wulff construction理論生長,呈現多面體狀,隨著熱處理時間增加,發生熟化反應使得晶粒尺寸增大。實驗結果發現,迴銲8和10分鐘,無論施加應變與否,晶粒尺寸和形態會有劇烈的變化;迴銲12、15、20和60分鐘,則晶粒形態全變成多面體狀且不再有尺寸上的變化。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractDamages on material are unavoidable in the production process and application of electronic device. One of these damages is mechanical strain which is resulted from the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of materials. It may affect the reliability of solder joints. The objective of this experiment is to simulate the effect of mechanical strain on Ag/Sn interfacial reaction. To investigate the effect of mechanical strain on solid-solid and solid-liquid Ag/Sn interfacial reactions, intermetallic compound the Ag3Sn phase growth rate and morphology were observed under applied compressive and tensile strain respectively and then compared with those on the reference sample with no strain. To evaluate the solid-solid interfacial reaction, thermal aging test was carried out on 3 individual sets of samples, which were applied compressive, tensile strain and without strain, with the same structure of 20-μm-Sn/30-μm-Ag/400±50-μm-Si. Aging temperatures in this experiment were set to be 150℃, 170℃ and 200℃ for the aging times of 24h, 72h, 120h, 240h, 360h and 480h. With the increasing aging time, the IMC thickness increased while the Ag3Sn phase was the only phase observed. From the results, it was that the applied strain enhanced the nucleation rate of the Ag3Sn phase to obtain grains in a smaller size and a larger amount. Thus, activation energy for the Ag3Sn grain growth under strain was increased and leaded to the decrease in growth rate. On the other hand, the application of strain showed no significant effect on the average thickness of the Ag3Sn phase. This can be explained by the rapid release of strain in the Ag3Sn phase due to its low melting point and small elastic modulus of silver. Reflow soldering was also conducted on the samples which has a structure of 1.3±0.07-mg-Sn/30-μm-Ag/400±50-μm-Si, under strains and with no strain at 255℃ to examine the effect of mechanical strain on the solid-liquid Ag/Sn interfacial reactions. The reflowing times were set to be 8 min, 10 min, 12 min, 15 min, 20 min and 60min. The Ag3Sn phase was also found as the only phase. The grain morphology was proved to follow the Wulff construction theory. Drastic change in morphology and increase in grain size were showed all sets of samples with reflowing time of 8min and 10min. Crystal structure became faceted under strain and the grain size showed no change at reflowing time of 12min, 15min, 20min and 60min.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents致謝辭 I 中文摘要 II Abstract III 目次 IV 表目次 VI 圖目次 VIII 一、 前言 1 二、 文獻回顧 2 (一) 微電子構裝發展與技術概論 2 (二) 電鍍層應力 3 (三) 應力種類 5 1. 本質應力 5 2. 磊晶應力 5 3. 熱應力 5 4. 相變化引發的應力 6 (四) 施加應變對IMC的成長影響 8 (五) 電鍍錫分類 22 (六) 銀基材特性 23 (七) 材料CTE特性 23 (八) 界面反應動力學 29 (九) 銀/錫界面反應 32 1. 固態界面反應 32 2. 液固界面反應 39 三、 實驗方法 44 (一) 銀/錫固態界面反應 44 1. 矽晶片製備 44 2. 銀鍍層製備 44 3. 酸性全光澤錫電鍍層製備 47 4. 模具施加應變和試片進行固態界面反應之熱處理 49 5. 光學顯微鏡、EPMA、FIB和EBSD樣品製備與分析 51 (二) 錫/銀液固界面反應 52 1. 矽晶片製備 52 2. 銀電鍍製備 52 3. 錫銲料和助銲劑規格 52 4. 模具施加應變以及試片進行液固界面反應之熱處理 53 5. 電子顯微鏡樣品製備與分析 54 四、 結果與討論 55 (一) 外加應變對銀/錫固態界面反應之影響 55 1. 試片分析區域 55 2. 150℃銀/錫界面反應 55 3. 170℃銀/錫界面反應 59 4. 200℃銀/錫界面反應 62 5. EPMA分析 65 6. 銀/錫界面反應之動力學分析 68 7. 電鍍層應力計算 75 8. FIB和EBSD分析 77 9. 施加應變於銀/錫、銅/錫與鎳/錫系統之IMC成長 81 (二) 外加應變對銀/錫液固界面反應之影響 82 1. 試片分析區域 82 2. 黃銅模具升溫曲線 82 3. 介金屬化合物之EDS分析 83 4. 迴銲8分鐘之SEM分析 84 5. 迴銲10分鐘之SEM分析 85 6. 迴銲12分鐘之SEM分析 86 7. 迴銲15、20和60分鐘之SEM分析 87 8. 液固界面反應之Ag3Sn相晶粒成長 90 五、 結論 91 (一) 外加應變對銀/錫固態界面反應之影響 91 (二) 外加應變對銀/錫液固界面反應之影響 92 六、 參考文獻 93zh_TW
dc.subjectsolder jointen_US
dc.titleThe Effects of Applied Strains on the Ag/Sn Interfacial Reactionsen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
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