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標題: Phosphorus-Containing Maleimide-Based Polymers for Flame Retardants
作者: 劉苑翎
Liu, Yuan-Ling
關鍵字: maleimide;含磷雙馬來醯胺;flame retardant;epoxy;diamime;phosphorus-containing;limited oxygen index;char yield;難燃劑;環氧樹脂;雙胺化合物;硬化劑;極限氧指數;焦炭殘餘量
出版社: 化學工程學系
A Phosphorus-containing maleimide compound capable of undergoing Michael Addition and free radical polymerization was synthesized. Chemical structure of this maleimide was characterized with FT-IR and NMR. This compound is soluble in most of the organic solvents such as DMSO,MEK,DMF,NMP,Toluene, 1,4-Dioxane,DCM,Chloroform,THF,Acetone,EA,Methanol,Ethanol and IPA.The maleimide (P content >6%) was then reacted with various compositions of bismaleimide, DDM, and Epon828 to form phosphorus-containing flame retardants. The introduction of soft -P(O)- linkage and hard aromatic groups into the backbones of the synthesized phosphorus-containing maleimide provides the potential for resulted polymers with tunable flexibility.
Thermal analysis of DSC and TGA reveals that these resulted polymers possess high Tgs and excellent thermal stability. It is important to note that Tg increases with increasing phosphorus content. This is due to the fact that three rigid phenyl rings are covalently bound to P(O). Furthermore, high char yields (30-60%) in TGA analysis and high LOI values (30-53) indicate that these phosphorus-containing polymers are capable of exhibiting superb flame retardant properties. These polymers could be potentially utilized in adhesive, high performance composites, printed circuit boards, etc.

首先製備出具膦基之含磷雙馬來醯胺單體,並與不同比例之BMI、DDM、BE 188製備出四系列之含磷難燃材料。此含磷雙馬來醯胺單體具有高的磷含量(>6%)及簡便的有機合成及後續處理程序,且可溶於大部分常用之有機溶劑中,表示磷團基之導入能有效提昇雙馬來醯胺之溶解性。值得注意的是玻璃轉化溫度皆隨著磷含量增加而增加,原因為雙馬來醯胺有三個苯環共價鍵結於磷團基上導致分子鏈不易運動所致。此外,含磷難燃材料受熱時,由磷團基開始裂解形成焦炭保護層,除提高裂解殘餘的熱穩定性而延遲高分子的熱裂解外,並大幅提高焦炭殘餘量,而發生難燃效應。研究結果顯示,這些含磷難燃材料具有相當高的焦炭殘餘量(30~64%)及極限氧指數值(30~53),且隨著磷含量的增加而增加,表現出極為優異的難燃性質。
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