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標題: Anatomy and Punishment: Investigation of the Relationship between the Anatomic Teaching and the Human Body from 16th to 18th Century in France
作者: 陳樂元
Chen, Yueh-yuan
關鍵字: 解剖教學;Anatomic teaching;刑罰;人體;醫學;死刑犯;Punishment;Human body;Medicine;Condemned prisoner
出版社: 新史學雜誌社
Project: 新史學, Volume 22, Issue 1, Page(s) 105-159.
人體解剖學的發展是西方醫學史中最具爭議性的問題之一,其所牽涉到的生命科學倫理議題與器官移植極為接近。西方從十六世紀以來,人體解剖教學在醫學教育中逐漸取得重要性,本文以人體解剖的教學原料之來源為中心,首先探討死刑犯作為解剖教學的主要原料之意義,分析此供給機制的運作原則,並以1551 年至1672 年巴黎高等法院的判決為具體例子,檢視死刑犯供給機制所引發的問題,以及行政權在面對此一人體資本管理問題所採取的應對措施;其次,本文試圖從被解剖的人體之角度來探討解剖與刑罰之關係,解剖不只是對人身體完整性的侵犯,也是對死者尊嚴的侵犯,而對相信人死後身體知覺繼續活存之民間信仰,解剖更是令人懼怕的終極刑罰。從解剖教學與解剖人體關係之探討,本文認為解剖學所具有之佔有人體與支解人體的本質,是理解現代西方醫學與人體關係之關鍵。

The development of the human body anatomy is one of the most controversial topics in the history of western medical science. The issues of life and morality it raises are quite close to those involved in the transplantation of human body organs. Since the 16th century, the human body anatomy has gradually become an important subject of medical education in Occident. This paper focuses on the sources of materials required in the teaching of the human body anatomy. First, by investigating the meaning of usage of the condemned prisoners as the main source of anatomic teaching materials, analyzing the operation of such supply system and taking the concrete example from the judgement of the Parliament of Paris during 1551 and 1672, we survey the problem incurred from the supply system of the condemned prisoners and the corresponding measures adopted by the administrative authority to confront the management problem of the human body. Second, the paper attempts to probe into the relationship between anatomy and punishment from the viewpoint of the body being dissected. The anatomic practice not only violates the completeness of the human body but also encroaches upon the dignity of the dead. The public has faith in existence of posthumous consciousness and hence anatomy becomes a dreadful ultimate punishment. By looking into the relationship between the anatomic teaching and the human body, we find that the possession and dissection of the human body involved in the anatomy can be the key to the comprehension of the relationship between the modern medicine and the human body.
ISSN: 1023-2249
Appears in Collections:歷史學系所

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