Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33454
標題: The evaluation of slope stability and improvement method on steep gravel slope and pits--A case study of Kweishan village in the Taoyuan county
濫採土石遺坑之安全性及其處理方式初步研究--以桃園龜山塔寮坑坑洞為例
作者: 童秉紳
Tung, Ping Shen
關鍵字: gravel extraction;砂石;slope stability;gravel layer;邊坡穩定;卵礫石層
出版社: 水土保持學系
摘要: 
本研究係以桃園縣龜山鄉塔寮坑段與龍華段5個坑洞群為研究對象。運用邊坡穩定分析軟體模擬崩塌境況,分析邊坡安全係數,探討卵礫石層與夾層之特性;另依安全性、經濟性、法規面、環保影響、居民反映、土地權屬、經營主體等考量,評估各處理方式之優缺點,尋求適當之處理程序與處理方式。最後以SWOT分析評估各處理方式的優劣勢及面對的外在機會與威脅,提出策略建議。
陡坡高度達50m~100m,邊坡穩定分析分述如下:
1.由地形歷史資料探討崩塌形式,以隨機方式產生不規則滑動面,尋求邊坡最大可能滑動面。
2.探討凸鏡體夾層在卵礫石層中對邊坡穩定之影響。
3.考慮921大地震,取水平加速度係數Kh=0.08,經反算數種土層參數,所推算之參數值比文獻發表者為大。
安全為坑洞處理重要之考量,若有立即危險者,例如會損及房屋、道路交通等,其處理時程急迫,政府主動介入之可能性較高,反之,坑洞處理之急迫性較低,短期以圍籬或警告標示禁止進入危險區,長期以邊坡挖緩、填緩,或坑洞填平等方式處理。
坑洞回填之利潤可分取土之利益、棄土證明費用以及實際運棄利益。由分析顯示,回填也未必絕對有經濟利益。除具有崩塌危險且地主又不處理,需政府介入處理外,仍以由地主負責回填為宜。
供試5處坑洞,歷經賀伯颱風、921地震、納莉颱風等之衝擊,坡面已逐漸安定。藉由居民反映調查,下游之新莊、樹林居民已強烈反對土石採取暨崩山災害緊急處理工程,致都市計畫變更使用無法通過,以土石採取手段將邊坡挖緩方式處理無法執行。
坑洞能提供水庫淤泥棄置場所,有關水庫土質、回填控管、運費、經濟可行性等值得進一步探討。
對濫挖坑洞與擅自回填坑洞之行為,有必要針對實際濫採之預期利益,依土方量採高額之罰款。建議修改區域計畫法,調整罰款上限。各地方政府可依相關法規,依市價配合開採量訂出處罰原則。科罰金時應審酌犯罪所得利益,酌量加重處罰。

This study is mainly focusing on the five large scale manmade excavation pits in the region of Tarliao and Longhwa of Kweishan village in the north of Taoyuan county. In this study, numerical tool was adopted to analysis the stability of the slope, and a series of suitable countermeasures are worked out to solve the problems existing in the field site. Among the various solutions, we try to find out the most economic, efficient and feasible treatment method. Finally, the SWOT analysis is used to analyze the environmental protection actions in promoting community development, and offer the tactical suggestions.
The slope analysis for these manmade excavation pits with the heights from 50m to 100m is summarized below:
1.To find out the most likely sliding face matching with the current and historical form of the slope.
2.To study the influence of soil factor C、ψ for gravel and inter-layered rock by using simulation method.
3.Based on the 921 earthquake, the horizontal acceleration factor Kh=0.08, and several countermeasure method were used to simulate the soil factor. The results show that the actual soil factor is higher than the references.
Safety is the major concern for the treatment of the pits. Unless there is immediately danger for house and traffic in the vicinity, the local government will be forced to treat the problems. Otherwise fence or warning poster can be set up at the initial stage to keep people away the pits. Fill and level up the pits by slope cutting or filling up method is the ultimate countermeasure for safety consideration.
The profits of the filled up of the pits cover several fees(regulation fee of abandon soil, transportation, etc). Further analysis shows that the filled up process might not be beneficial, so unless it’s highly dangerous and the landowner refuse to take the responsibility, government should forced the landowner to solve the problem.
All the five pits has stabilized after the 921 earthquake, Typhoon Hurb and Nali. But the local citizens strongly protest the gravel extraction, which kept all the legal extraction proposal still on paper only.
The pits can be used as the abandon area for sludge from the dam, which will need further study about its soil texture, the monitoring process, transportation fee, economic feasibility.
To control the illegal excavation and filled up of the pits, government should higher the fine based on the actual quantity of excavation. In the future, we shall revise the law of region planning, higher the limit of the fine, using the market price and the actual quantity of excavation as the base for the fine.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33454
Appears in Collections:水土保持學系

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