Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33609
標題: 德基水庫集水區管理機制之探討
Investigation of the Management Mechanisms of the Watershed at Te-Chi Reservoir
作者: 鄧英慧
Teng, Ying-Hui
關鍵字: Reservoir Watershed;水庫集水區;Management Mechanisms;Reservoir Sediment;Water Pollution;管理機制;水庫淤沙;水質污染
出版社: 水土保持學系
摘要: 
ABSTRACT
The application of the Ta-chia River water resources is the highest one among the major rivers in Taiwan. Ta-chia River is not only the major water resources of irrigation water, industrial water and drinking water supply for central Taiwan area, the outputs of the six hydropower plants along the river is also the highest among all the rivers in Taiwan. The largest Te-Chi Reservoir is located at the most upstrean of Ta-chia river, so the water resources application downstream are deeply affected by Te-Chi Reservoir watershed management. Owing to the growth of population and economic development as well as the construction of East-west highway across the watershed, unfortunately the land of the watershed was not properly cultivated, the natural resources has been greatly distorted, the eutrophication and sedimentation of Te-Chi reservoir is getting seriously day by day.
This study describes the history of Ta-chia river water resources development in the first . Secondly , it analyzes the problems that Te-Chi Reservoir watershed faced in the past, such as over-limit land use, serious sedimentation, water body eutrophication, etc. thirdly, it evaluates the implementation of four terms management plans in sequence from 1967 to 2002. A brief statement of the categories for each plan is described as follows; 1. forest management 2. soil and water conservation for land use 3. soil and water conservation for roads 4. sabo engineering 5. the management of the protection zone of the reservoir 6. promotion of reducing the use of pesticide and fertilizer 7. water quality monitoring and management 8. ecosystem preservation 9. land monitoring and management 10. sewage and trash treatment for communities 11. the study of Te-Chi Reservoir management authority system, etc.
After every subplan of each integrated management plan is implemented, the water quality has matched the grade“A”water quality standards, the eutrophication phenomenon seldom appered in the past 5 years ,and the water resources of Te-Chi Reservoir can be reasonably and effectively used as well at the present and in the future. Furthormore, throughout these 30 years of treatment and management in the watershed area,the mean yearly sedimention rate reduced from 1,026,618 m3/yr. before 1997 to 951,200m3/yr. before May, 2002. The sedimentation. of the reservoir has been declining year by year.
At last, according to the implementation and the experience from the treatment and management in the past 30 years,This study established the management mechanisms of Te-Chi Reservoir Watershed for making the countermeasures of integrated management in the Reservoir watershed in the future.
For the purpose of the sustainable water resources supply and water quality maintenance in Te-Chi Reservoir watershed, this study also recommends;1. continue to retrieve the over-limit land use areas for reforestation, 2. educate farmers with the information on reduction of pesticide and fertilizer use according to the results from studies conducted in the previous management plans, 3. establish Te-Chi Reservoir watershed becoming an authority titled as“the Dachia River Basin Bureau for soil and water conservation”according to the Soil and Water Conservation Law, 4. continue water quality monitoring and management, etc.

德基水庫集水區管理機制之探討
中 文 摘 要
台灣因地理位置之關係,潛在之地文條件本就不利於水土資源之保育,而因其位居颱風常經之處,颱風豪雨常致水土災害,加上人口稠密、工商發達,用水需求極大,雖其年平均累積雨量高達2,510mm,但因河短流急,集水區之水源涵養能力極差,興建水庫以蓄洪濟枯乃成別無選擇之方式,以致全台共建有四十座水庫,德基水庫即為其中最特殊者,當初開發係以水力發電為主,故於1973年12月大壩竣工時,即由經濟部成立「德基水庫集水區管理委員會」,為台灣首座設有專責管理機構之水庫。
為有效管理,政府早在德基水庫大壩工程動工前之13年(即1956),便在梨山設置「大甲溪電源保護站」,積極規劃辦理水庫集水區各項水土資源保育工作,開國內水庫集水區治理工作之先河。1967年成立「達見水庫集水區經營專案小組」,辦理「達見水庫集水區管理第一期工作」。「德基水庫集水區管理委員會」成立之主要任務,在負責本水庫集水區各項治理工作之策劃審議、聯繫協調、督導考核及經費之籌措與運用審議。三十餘年來,共辦理六階段之中程(每階段約五年)整體治理規劃工作,動支經費約新台幣33億4千餘萬元。目前正持續辦理2003年度整體治理工作,同時辦理本集水區第五期(為期五年)治理規劃工作,其規劃內容含;1.森林經營 2.土地利用與水土保持 3.道路水土保持 4.防砂工程 5.水庫保護帶經營 6.農藥肥料減量宣導與推廣 7.水質監測與管理 8.生態保育宣導 9.有勝溪流域整治工程等九項。
依過去歷年整治成果分析,已發揮大部分預期功能,如: 1.水庫年淤積量逐年降低,歷年平均淤積量自1997年以前之1,026,618m3/yr.降為2002年以前之951,200 m3/yr.,目前總淤積率僅約10%,遠優於霧社水庫之40%。 2.水質之卡爾森優養指數(TSI)由過去之嚴重優養化,改善成為最近五年來之普養(或貧養)狀態。 3.舊有超限利用濫墾地逐年收回造林。 4.透過宣導教育與溝通協調,集水區內民眾已體認土地開發利用與水庫永續經營,係共生共榮之夥伴關係。
由於本集水區內本有原住民散居,加上中橫公路通車後政府安置榮民於集水區內,具別於其他水庫之背景。此外現有水庫集水區管理法令繁多,疊床架屋,執行權責分屬於中央及地方各相關部會,難以釐清與整合。專責管理機構德委會又屬經濟部之臨時性任務編組單位,無獨立之人事、預算與行政權。最難掌控的是,常有部分民意代表關心,中斷治理政策之推動,造成公權力無法發揮、執行,人民輕視法令與不守法之陋習。故至今仍有部分預定之對策工作尚未完成,如:超限利用地收回造林部分未完成、有勝溪流域未整治、垃圾未妥善處理、污水下水道未興建等。另外我國於2002年加入WTO後,預測德基水庫集水區內之果農將逐漸無利可圖,勢將砍除果樹而改種蔬菜,對集水區泥砂淤積及水質污染,將造成不利之影響。九二一地震後發生大台中地區曾發生停水與限水情形,更證明德基水庫蓄洪濟枯之重要性,故不能以過去稍有成就而疏忽大意,基於水庫集水區整治工作係整體性、永續性之工作,應與水庫壽命之延長同軌進行,故今後政府相關機關仍應寬籌經費,充實人力與設備,全力以赴。
本研究主要以個人參予德基水庫集水區經營管理約二十年之工作經驗,依據相關管理資料,分析本集水區在惡劣水文、地文環境下,水資源保育工作所面臨之基本問題。其次檢討政府針對該等問題,三十多年來所投資辦理各項經營管理工作之成果,及部分未達成目標尚需持續辦理之事項。另參酌各專家學者多年來在本集水區所做相關研究之結論與建議,與國內外其他水庫推動集水區管理之寶貴經驗,探討德基水庫集水區管理機制,並提出相關建議,供政府決策單位今後制定集水區管理對策,及供現場工作人員實際執行管理工作時之參考。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33609
Appears in Collections:水土保持學系

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