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標題: Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Nafion Thin Film Electrodes for Determination of Heavy Metals
作者: 陳玠鳴
Chen, Jie-Ming
關鍵字: 奈米碳管;Multiwalled carbon nanotubes;全氟磺酸聚合物;修飾電極;陽極剝除伏安法;界面活性劑;Nafion;Modified electrode;Anodic stripping voltammetry;Surfactants
出版社: 化學工程學系
本研究成功的製備出一種用於電化學剝除分析的新穎奈米碳管/全氟磺聚合物(multiwalled carbon nanotubes(MWNTs)/Nafion)薄膜。奈米碳管經由高分子纏繞的修飾方式,成功的被穩定分散於全氟磺酸聚合物溶液中,將MWNTs/Nafion溶液經由簡單的塗佈方式製備出MWNTs/Nafion薄膜修飾電極。不同含量的MWNTs/Nafion修飾電極的表面形貌經由原子力顯微鏡(atomic force microscope , AFM)及場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡(field emission scanning electron microscope, FESEM)鑑定,可觀察到經由電弧放電法合成的MWNTs為筆直均勻的棒狀結構,其直徑約為20至60 nm而長度約數百個nm至數個μm,在整個薄膜中扮演奈米導線的角色,提供相當良好的電傳導性。
MWNTs/Nafion薄膜修飾電極於含5 mM Fe(CN)63-/4-氧化還原物的0.1 M KCl溶液系統的循環伏安實驗中可獲相當良好氧化還原波峰,與Nafion薄膜修飾電極比較,可發現MWNTs/Nafion薄膜修飾電極具有較低的氧化還原峰電位差,顯示在存在MWNTs情況下可以加速薄膜間的電子轉移速率。在以MWNTs/Nafion薄膜修飾電極利用陽極剝除伏安法偵測溶液中重金屬離子的研究中,顯示在0.1 M醋酸緩衝溶溶液中,單獨偵測0.4 μM至5μM濃度範圍鎘離子以及同時偵測1 μM至5μM濃度範圍的鎘離子與鉛離子,發現濃度與所得之峰電流成良好的線性比例關係,因此我們可以得知這種新穎的無汞薄膜電極可以有效的用來偵測溶液中的鎘離子與鉛離子含量。
以四種典型的界面活性劑,分別包括非離子型界面活性劑(Triton X-100)、陰離子型界面活性劑(sodium dodecyl sulfate)、陽離子型界面活性劑(dodecyl pyridinium chloride)及蛋白質(bovine serum albumin),經由四種不同類型的界面活性劑的影響實驗,我們發現MWNTs/Nafion薄膜修飾電極對於界面活性劑的抗干擾效果相當不錯,由此可看出MWNTs/Nafion薄膜修飾電極在應用於實際樣品的偵測具有相當大的潛力,對於未來的應用性方面也將更加的廣泛。

A novel electroanalytical nanocomposite film of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and Nafion cation exchanger membrane for stripping analysis is reported. The wrapping of MWNTs with Nafion that bears polar-side chain, leads to stable suspension of MWNTs in Nafion polymer solution. MWNTs/Nafion thin film modified electrode is prepared via a simple cast deposition on glassy carbon electrode. The morphologies of various contents of MWNTs/Nafion modified electrode are characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The MWNTs synthesized by arc discharge are cylindrical shaped and uniform, which are with a diameter in the range of 20 - 60 nm and with a length of up to several micrometers and provide sufficiently high electrical conductivity across the film.
Well-defined voltammetric responses are observed at MWNTs/Nafion thin film modified electrode contrast to electrode coated only with Nafion for the Fe(CN)63-/4- redox system in aqueous 0.1 M KCl. A narrow peak-to-peak separation are observed in the presence of MWNTs, which suggests fast electron conduction within the membrane. The anodic stripping response for Cd metal from a solution of 0.4 μM to 5μM in aqueous 0.1 M acetate buffer solution is demonstrated and optimized. The anodic stripping response for simultaneous detection of Cd and Pb metal from a solution of 1 μM to 5μM in aqueous 0.1 M acetate buffer solution is also investigated and demonstrated. From those results, we can conclude this novel mercury-free thin film electrode can be employed to accumulate and detect cadmium and lead metals in aqueous solution.
The feasibility of using the MWNTs/Nafion thin film modified electrode for the anodic stripping voltammetric determination of cadmium and lead in 0.1 M acetate buffer in the presence of various typical surfactants is examined. Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate, dodecyl pyridinium chloride, and bovine serum albumin were chosen as four typical interferents. Relatively small enhancing and suppressing effects on the stripping peak currents for cadmium and for lead detection at the MWNTs/Nafion thin film modified electrode were observed. The excellent performance in the presence of various surfactants suggests MWNTs/Nafion thin film has potential for determination of real samples and could in the future be of wider applicability.
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