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標題: 利用二氧化碳發泡製備抗熱之硬質發泡體研究
作者: 潘國龍
Lung, Pan Kuo
關鍵字: rigid foam;硬質發泡體;PUIR
出版社: 化學工程學系
Because of the banning of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that used in the traditional PUIR foams by the 1987 Montreal Protocol, we have targeted our research on new CFC-free PUIR formulations. In this study, we have focused on chemical blowing techniques for PUIR foams that were based on CO2 -forming reactions of isocyanate chemistries. Our goal is to prepare a 100% CO2-blown PUIR foams with density of 2~3 lb/ft3 possessing fine-cell sizes of less than 150 μm and stable dimension stability that still have the mechanical properties of traditional heat resistant PUIR foams.
In my optimization efforts, I have screened systematically various combinations of blowing/trimerization catalysts and in conjunctions with other additives for introducing heat stable functional groups. It was found that a combination of PC-41 (trimerization catalyst) and dimethyl phospholene oxide (DMPO) has been the most efficient for foam blowing process. In the meantime, these blowing combinations also have to be complimented by the addition of epoxy resin (Epon 188) in range of 20% to 25% in the formulation in achieving suitable exotherm for further crosslinking reactions.
In the 100% CO2 blown foam prepared by this study, successful introductions of isocyanurate, carbodiimide, oxazolidone and amide-imide functional groups into the foam polymer have been achieved by a one-shot process. In the meantime, the modified foams have been found to have higher heat resistant properties. They were dimensional stable and exhibiting foaming profiles suitable for adaptation to the current PUIR manufacturing facility.

因為1987年的蒙特婁公約規定,禁止在傳統的PUIR發泡體上使用氟氯碳化物(CFCs),所以我們把研究的重點放在不使用氟氯碳化物之新型PUIR發泡體的配方上。在本研究中,我們著重在以異氰酸鹽產生CO2的化學發泡的技術來生成PUIR。目標是製備100%以CO2發泡的PUIR發泡體,且具2~3 lbm/ft3的密度及細微的泡孔粒徑維持小於150μm,更擁有穩定的體積形狀,也就是說我們保有了傳統耐熱PUIR發泡體的機械性質。
在最佳化的努力之下,我們已能系統化揭示各式各樣不同的組合,包括:發泡╱三量化觸媒與結合其他添加物﹙如導入熱穩定性官能基﹚。實驗中發現結合PC-41與DMPO是最有效的發泡體發泡程序。同時在發泡配方中可藉由添加環氧樹脂﹙Epon-188﹚,配方使用量約20~25 w.t.%即可達到適當的放熱溫度,令發泡體在所處的環境下,能有效促成進一步的交聯反應。
製備100% CO2發泡的發泡體研究中,我們成功的將異氰脲酸酯﹙isocyanurate﹚、碳二醯胺﹙carbodiimide﹚、惡唑烷基﹙oxazolidone﹚及醯胺-醯亞胺﹙amide-imide﹚等官能基成功導入發泡體高分子中,並只採一步合成的方式即可達成。同時經改質過後的發泡體發現具有較高抗熱的性質,並擁有體積形狀穩定的特性,且發泡過程所展現的方法可被現行PUIR發泡體的製程設施所接受。
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