Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34454
標題: 地震誘發地滑之數值模擬
Numerical Modeling of Landslides Induced by Earthquakes
作者: 王勝賢
Wang, Sheng-Hsien
關鍵字: 有限元素法;finite element method;動態應力分析;累積位移量;臨界加速度;dynamic stress analysis;accumulative displacement;critical acceleration
出版社: 水土保持學系所
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S., (1997).‘‘Modified Newmark model for seismic displacement of compliant slopes.’’ Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering , Vol. 123 , No. 7, pp.635–644. 50.Kramer, S.L., (1996) .Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice-Hall International Series in civil Engineering Mechanics. 51.Ling, H.I., Leshchinsky, D.,Mohri, Y.,(1997) “ Soil slopes under com- bined horizontal and vertical seismic accelerations.” Earthquake Engineering and structural dynamic ,Vol.26, pp.1231-1241. 52.Ling,H.I.,(2001). “Recent applications of sliding block theory to geotechnical design. ” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol.21, pp.189–197. 53.Ling,H.I.,Mohri, Y.,Kawabata, T,(1999). “Seismic analysis of sliding wedge:extended Francais-Culmann’s analysis”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,Vol.18,pp.387–393. 54.Newmark,N.M.,(1965). “Effects of Earthquake on Dams and Embankments , ”Geotechnique ,Vol.15, No. 2, pp.139–159. 55.QUAKE/W,(1991–2002) , Version 5, USER’S GUIDE , GEO-SLOPE/W International Ltd,Canada. 56.Richter,C.F., (1935).“An instrumental earthquake scale”, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America,Vol.25,pp.1-32. 57.Romeo, R.,(2000) “Seismically induced landslide displacements: a predictive model”,Engineering Geology, Vol. 58, pp.337–351, 58.Siddharthan,R.V. and EL-Gamal, M., (1998).“Permanent Rotational Deformation of Dry Cohesionless Slopes Under Seismic E xcitations.” Transport. 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摘要: 
The Chi-Chi earthquake (921 Quake) possesses a Richarter Magnitude of 7.3 occurred at the central part of Taiwan on 21, September, 1999 and caused large scale and extensive slope failure at the mountain area. As a consequence, the earthquake induced slope failure becomes one of the most critical issues among the relevant research work of natural disaster prevention in Taiwan. In conventional engineering analysis, it is common to evaluate the stability of hill slope using pseudo-static analysis method when subjected to the earthquake loading. However, the aforementioned method is unable to calculate the stress distribution, accumulative displacement, and failure mode of the slope during earthquake. This study performs a systematic dynamic stress analysis on a series of fictitious hill slope using finite element method to calculate the time history curves of factor safety FS(t)~t, acceleration a(t)~t and FS(t)~ a(t) of the sliding mass. According to the FS(t)~ a(t) curve, the critical acceleration ac for a sliding slope can be determined. Eventually, the accumulative displacement of sliding block Δ can be computed by Newmark’s sliding block analysis theory and used to evaluate the stability and failure mode of the slope when subjected to earthquake loading.
Using two dimensional finite element method of dynamic stress stability analysis, this study attempts to establish a stability evaluation model of hill slope during earthquake. Firstly, the experimental results of a small scale shaking table test in laboratory were used to calibrate the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed numerical procedures. Subsequently, three modes of earthquake acceleration time history curves entitled E5、E6 and E7 were selected from the data bank of 921 Quake of Central Weather Bureau and used as earthquake loading inputs for the dynamic stability analysis of several fictitious slopes. The E5、E6 and E7 are real time acceleration time history curve and can be used to represent the earthquake intensities I values equivalent to levels 5, 6 and 7 in Taiwan respectively. Through the input of three earthquake loading modes E5、E6 and E7, the parametric study of various influence factors on the slope stability such as stratum material, slope inclination and slope height can be carried out. At last the weighting rate of various influence factors on the failure potential of hill slope subjected to earthquake loading can be evaluated quantitatively.
For the numerical simulations of small scale shaking table test, the calculated slope profile after vibration indicates the crown of slope moves backward with a displacement of 7.5 mm. The calculation is slightly overestimated than the measurement of 5.0 mm from experiment. In conclusion, the failure mode and displacement quantity of the slope after vibration are still falling within the reasonable range.
From numerical results, for a fictitious slope with specific baseline value of material and subjected to E7 earthquake loading mode, it is found that the potential of slope failure may relatively increases if the hill slope is categorized more than Grade 4 (with slope angle>21.8°or slope inclination>40%) and with slope height more than 10 m.
In addition, the critical acceleration ac decreases with the increase of unit weight of stratum material. This implies that under a specific topographic condition, an increase of unit weight will impose a higher failure potential to the hill slope during earthquake. Moreover, in the aspect of strength parameters of stratum material, the increases of cohesion c and friction angle φ will reduce the failure potential of hill slope during earthquake.
Further, the numerical results reveal the calculated acceleration time history curve of sliding block has higher similarity with those of the motion of rigid body if the Young’s modulus of block material E greater than 8,000 kN/m2. In other word, the block material with E>8,000 kN/m2 is appropriate for the application of Newmark sliding block method to calculate the accumulative displacementΔduring earthquake. In addition, the damping ratio of material D is used to express the extent of dissipation of internal energy when subjected to the vibration loading. For the material with lower damping ratio, the energy of earthquake is mainly used to generate the kinematic energy of sliding block and as a result the Δ value will increase with the kinematic energy of the sliding block. Finally, the numerical results also show that the critical acceleration ac of the slope is independent of the values of D, E and the earthquake loading mode.

1999年9月21日,於台灣中部發生規模7.3之集集大地震,其中地震誘發邊坡破壞的問題成為台灣自然災害研究的重要課題之一。一般傳統工程分析上,多採用擬靜態法來評估邊坡受地震力作用時之邊坡穩定性問題,此類分析法無法反應邊坡在受振過程中的應力分佈、累積變位量及破壞模式。本研究採用有限元素分析法進行邊坡動態應力分析,決定邊坡之地震安全係數歷時曲線FS(t)~t、地震加速度歷時曲線a(t)~t及FS(t)~ a(t)曲線,並由上述歷時曲線求取邊坡之臨界加速度ac值。最後,採用Newmark滑動塊體分析理論,求取邊坡之累積位移量Δ,並據以評估地震誘發邊坡破壞及穩定性。
本研究採用二維有限元素法動態應力穩定分析法,來建立一套邊坡受地震力作用時之穩定性評估模式。首先,採用小型振動台模型實驗之實驗成果進行數值模擬並檢核數值程序之可靠性及有效性。隨之,依據中央氣象局921地震記錄資料選用三種地震加速度歷時曲線,其編號分別為E5、E6及E7來進行虛擬邊坡受震分析。此三種歷時曲線可用來代表地震震度I=5、6及7級之相當地震力輸入資料。另外,在三種地震模式作用下,針對各種地層材料、邊坡坡度、邊坡高度等穩定性影響因子進行參數研究後,再依據量化分析之成果來評估各影響因子對地震誘發邊坡破壞潛勢之影響度。
由小型振動台模型實驗數值模擬結果求得滑動面坡頂較原坡面者後移7.5 mm,此計算值較實驗量測值5.0 mm稍大。但總體而言,其位移模式及大小仍屬可接受之範圍。
由數值分析結果得知,虛擬邊坡之材料在特定基線值條件下,並承受地震模式E7(地震震度I=7級之相當地震加速度歷時曲線)之作用時,若邊坡之坡級在超過4級(坡角=21.8°,坡度40%)以上且坡高超過10 m之情況下,地震誘發邊坡破壞之潛勢相對較高。
當地層材料之單位重增加時,ac則隨之遞減,此暗示邊坡在相同條件下,單位重增加時地震誘發邊坡破壞之潛勢越高。另外,在地層材料強度參數方面,凝聚力c與摩擦角φ之增加可降低地震誘發邊坡破壞之潛勢。
再者,研究顯示當塊體材料之楊氏模數E>8,000 kN/m2時所計算求得之塊體加速度歷時曲線較符合剛體運動行為,亦即其材料特性較適宜採用Newmark滑動塊體法之累積位移量計算。另外,地層材料之阻尼比D用來表示材料在受振過程中,內能耗損之程度。在阻尼比值較低之情況下,邊坡受振搖動時內能耗損較小,主要地震能量用來產生塊體滑動動能,因此,Δ值將相對增大。分析結果同時顯示,臨界加速度ac值並不會隨著輸入阻尼比D、楊氏模數E及地震模式之不同而有所變化。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34454
其他識別: U0005-2701200710451600
Appears in Collections:水土保持學系

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