Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34839
標題: 漂流木運移特性及對河川型態改變之試驗研究
The Influence of Large Wood Debris Movement on River Morphology in a Flume Experiment
作者: 陳佳璜
Chen, Chia-Huang
關鍵字: Large woody debris (LWD);漂流木;deposition pattern;LWD jam;沉積型態;漂流木聚集
出版社: 水土保持學系所
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摘要: 
台灣地區夏季颱風數量多且密集,常造成坡面崩塌並引發土石流等問題;在歷經2004年及2005年連續兩年夏天颱風暴雨侵襲之後,台灣許多河川中出現大量漂流木,同時大量漂流木也使得河道阻塞,直接影響排洪及正常取水。因此漂流木災害,近年來已引起政府相關單位之重視。但漂流木是自然河流生態系統重要的結構組成成分,當漂流木於河道中具有下列三種明顯作用:(1)漂流木可攔截河道泥砂;(2)漂流木能夠對水流產生阻擋及分流等作用;(3)漂流木具有穩定河道兩岸及減低河床掏刷等作用,進而減低泥砂之運移。
綜合上述,本研究利用渠槽試驗,針對有無漂流木沉積在河道當中之情況,對沖刷深度與輸砂量之影響,進而探討河川型態與漂流木之相互關係。另外紀錄整體漂流木進入不同河道當中所形成的沉積型態、運移速率,並從中分析不同長度與直徑之漂流木在河道中之沉積型態與運移速率。
試驗結果發現有漂流木沉積於河道中,其沉積型態能有效阻擋與分流水流,也能改變水流流路使得整體流路較多變,加速主深槽擺盪的速率,進而使得整體河川型態發生改變。漂流木因能降低水流流速,不但能使整體河床的沖刷深度變淺,降低輸砂量,更能使泥砂有效地沉積於漂流木下游處形成沙洲。多數漂流木會堆積形成漂流木聚集,在漂流木聚集上游段形成深潭,在下游段形成沙洲,深潭及沙洲能提供水生生物棲息,增加整體河道的生物多樣性。在漂流木的沉積型態方面,平行於水流占的比例為最高,其次為傾斜於水流,最後為垂直於水流,在漂流木長度與渠道寬度比小於0.5時,越長的漂流木其沉積為平行於水流的比例會越高,在漂流木長度與渠道寬度比大於0.5時,漂流木則較易以垂直於水流的型態沉積於河床中;直徑的大小與漂流木的沉積型態較無明顯的關係。漂流木之運移速率幾乎皆與長度成反比;直徑大小對運移速率較無明顯的差異。漂流木聚集能夠較有效地攔阻自上游流下來的漂流木,阻止漂流木向下游移動,降低漂流木的移動速率,且漂流木在相互堆積後能以傾斜或垂直於水流的型態穩定的沉積於河床中。

The typhoons induce disasters of landslides and debris flow, bringing amount of large woody debris (LWD) which blocked the river and affected the flood expellant, and water supply in Taiwan. According to above results, the government has focused on the problem of LWD seriously. There are three main functions for LWD in a river: (1) To intercept the sediment on the river bed. (2) To block and separate the water flow. (3) To stabilize the river bank and lessen the scour.
Above all, this experiment conducts the scour depth and sediment export of channel river bed with or without LWD in the channel. We explore the river patterns of the inter-relationship with the LWD, and analyse the LWD's deposition pattern and speed in different channels.
Results indicate that LWD within the channel not only block and separate the flow effectively, but also change the river morphology. Because LWD which reduse the water flow could lessen the scour on river bed, and induse the bars formed of LWDs downstream side. LWD jam was accumulated by LWDs. Pools and Bars are formed in the LWD jam's upstream and downstream. It could provide habitats for aquatic organisms, and increase the overall biodiversity of the river. In the deposition patterns, LWD parallel to the water has the highest percentage, followed by oblique, and finally for the perpendicular. When the ratio of channel width and LWD length is less than 0.5, the longer the higher proportion of the deposition of the LWD is parallel to water. When the ratio is greater than 0.5, the LWD is easier to deposit perpendicular to the flow. The size of the LWD diameter to the deposition pattern has no significant relationship. Moving speed is inversely proportional with the LWD lenth; the size of the LWD diameter to the moving speed has no significant relationship. LWD jam will be more effective in blocking the LWD from the upstream, and reduce the moving speed of LWD. And LWD could stably deposit in oblique or perpendicular to flow when LWD were accumulated.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34839
其他識別: U0005-2507200901312700
Appears in Collections:水土保持學系

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