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|標題:||The Mechanism of Large Woody Debris Initial Entrainment in a Flume Experiment
|關鍵字:||large woody debris;漂流木;wood stability factor;wood incipient motion prediction model;穩定性因子;漂流木起動預測模式||出版社:||水土保持學系所||引用:||1. 陳樹群、陳佳璜、趙益群 (2010)，「漂流木運移特性對河川型態改變之試驗研究」，中華水土保持學報，40(1)：。(accepted) 2. 葉昭憲 (2009)，「木質殘材對局部河床影響之調查與渠槽試驗研究」，中華水土保持學報，40(1)：79~93。 3. 魏曉華、代力民 (2006)，「森林溪流倒木生態學研究進展」，植物生態學報，30(6)：1018~1029。 4. Abbe, T.B., Montgomery, D.R., Featherston, K., McClure, E. (1993), “A process-based classification of woody debris in a fluvial network; preliminary analysis of the Queets River, Washington,” EOS Transaction of the American Geophysical Union, 74: 296. 5. Abbe, T.B., Montgomery, D.R. (1996), “Large woody debris jams, channel hydraulics and habitat formation in large rivers,” Regulated Rivers: Research and Management, 12: 201~221. 6. Andrus, C. W., Long, B. A., and Froehlich, H. A. (1988), “Woody debris and its contribution to pool formation in a coastal stream 50 years after logging,” Can. J. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci., 45: 2080~2086. 7. Beschta, R. L., and Platts, W. 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Div., ASCE, 101(7): 871~884. 34. Shaw, T. L. (1971), “Effect of side walls on flow past bluff bodies,” J. Hydr. Div., ASCE, 97(1): 65~79. 35. Shields Jr., F. D., Gippel, C. J. (1995), “Prediction of effects of woody debris removal on flow resistance,” J. Hydr. Engrg., ASCE, 121(4): 341~354. 36. Smith, R. D., Sidle, R. C., and Porter, P. E. (1993), “Effects on bedload transport of experimental removal of woody debris from a forest gravel bed stream,” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 18: 455~468. 37. Toews, D.A.A., Moore, M.K. (1982), “The effects of three streamside logging treatments on organic debris and channel morphology in Carnation Creek,” Proceedings: Carnation Creek Workshop, p. 129~153. 38. Wallerstein, N., Thorne, C. R., Doyle, M. W. (1997), “Spatial distribution and impact of large woody debris in northern Mississippi,” In Management of Landscapes Disturbed by Channel Incision, Wang SSY, Langendoen EJ, Shields FD (eds). University of Mississippi: Mississippi, USA; p. 145~150. 39. Wallerstein, N. P., Alonso, C. V., Bennett, S. J., Thorne, C. R. (2002), “Surface wave forces acting on submerged logs,” ASCE J Hydraul Eng, 128(3):349~353. 40. Wooster, J., Hilton, S. (2004), “Large woody debris volumes and accumulation rates in cleaned streams in redwood forests in Southern Humboldt county, California,” USDA Forest Service Research Note, PSW-RN-426. 41. Young, M.K. (1994), “Movement and characteristics of stream bourne coarse woody debris in adjacent burned and undisturbed watersheds in Wyoming,” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24: 1933~1938.||摘要:||
There has thus far been relatively little research into large woody debris (LWD) motion. The research was designed as a fixed bed flume experiment to explore the state of LWD critical entrainment, and discussed the initial flow condition was influenced by different length, diameter, orientation and bed roughness. Additionally, the theoretical model was developed to predict wood entrainment and compare predictor with experiment results.
The experiment results show that different orientations of wood will lead to different types of wood movement. For wood parallel to flow, the mechanism of motion features started by semi-floating and semi-sliding, because flow was gradually raised with the buoyant force increased and the friction force decreased until the wood moved to downstream. For wood oblique or perpendicular to flow, the mechanism of motion features started by rolling. Both the models and the experiments indicate that stable wood is significantly associated with wood angle relative to flow direction, the density of wood, wood diameter, channel slope and bed roughness. The wood stability is less sensitive to the choice of the apparent drag coefficient and wood length. Although previously reported as the most important factor in wood stability, wood length did not significantly affect the threshold of movement in the experiments or the model predictions, for wood shorter than channel width.
This research consists of sliding and rolling equilibrium equations to establish a prediction model of wood entrainment:
where dw is the flow depth for wood incipient motion, Llog is the wood length, Dlog is wood diameter, ρlog and ρw are the densities of wood and water, respectively, S is the channel slope (S=tanα), CD is the drag coefficient of the wood in water, ds is the bed grain size, θ is the angle of the wood relative to flow, and is the friction angle between wood and channel bed.
This prediction model is helpfully used for multiple angles of the wood relative to flow, and the flow depth for wood incipient motion could be predicted under the wood and channel characteristics are given. To compare model predictors with experiments, the bias account for about 10% of the wood diameter. Moreover, for wood oblique or perpendicular to flow, the bias only account for about 5% of the wood diameter. According to the results, the prediction model is relative successfully at predicting depths for wood incipient motion.
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