Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/35534
標題: 部份發酵茶遠紅外線烘焙特性之研究
The Study on FIR-Baked Characteristics for Partially Fermented Tea
作者: 張連發
Chang, Lian-Fua
關鍵字: partially fermented;部分發酵茶;tea far-infrared ray (FIR);baking;tea;遠紅外線;烘焙;茶
出版社: 生物產業機電工程學系所
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摘要: 
本研究比較於一般傳統式烘焙法,應用遠紅外線烘焙部份發酵茶,除了可以保持原有的茶香,並能保持均一茶葉成品品質外,另可縮短烘焙時間,節省能源,降低茶葉加工成本,對於製茶產業的技術提升有深遠的影響。
遠紅外線烘焙試驗官能品評的結果顯示,機採青心烏龍茶以溫度90~100℃、烘焙2~4小時的茶葉,其茶湯的色、香、味等品質皆表現優異,外觀及色澤亦能維持原有的墨綠色。以110℃烘焙6小時,帶微火香味。以120℃烘焙4小時,其品質呈下降趨勢,略帶焙火香,水色稍轉黃紅;烘焙時間8小時,則水色加深,香氣為焦火香,滋味苦,帶微酸性,品質最差。手採青心烏龍茶以遠紅外線110℃烘焙6小時,不論水色香味成績皆最佳,而120℃烘焙6小時以上品質最差。
茶湯的pH值隨烘焙溫度之昇高與時間之增加而減小,呈酸性反應。在茶湯水色方面,以90~100℃烘焙時無明顯差異,而在110~120℃,時間4~8小時,黃色值則有明顯差異。由實驗結果得知,應用遠紅外線烘焙高級茶,以90~100℃之烘焙溫度,烘焙2~4小時為宜,中下級茶則可依品質需要,調整遠紅外線烘焙時間與溫度,以改善茶葉品質。
經描述分析之整體總評而言,本試驗結果以110℃- 6小時為最好,110℃- 4小時次之,120℃- 8小時最差,在傳統品評中是以烘焙溫度100℃的優點項目為最多;120℃- 8小時無論是傳統或描述分析法都相當一致;建議茶葉的遠紅外線烘焙溫度以不超過120℃為原則。
多元酚和咖啡因是茶葉中相當重要的成分,其含量的高低及組成分比例會影響茶湯水色、香氣與滋味;由試驗結果顯示,電熱焙茶與遠紅外線焙茶,其化學成分除了水分、茶湯PH、還原醣、胺基酸及L值有明顯差異外,在兒茶素類僅EGC變化較明顯。咖啡因含量隨焙茶溫度之提高呈增加趨勢,推測可能原因是茶葉在烘焙後使組織內部之咖啡因易於溶出,或是咖啡因與其他多元酚結合產生的複合物caffeine-Tannate受加熱影響,致使咖啡因分離出來。另總多酚含量亦隨烘焙溫度之提高而產生不同變化,phenol、Folin、兒茶素類化合物中C、EC、ECG、EGCG,呈下降趨勢。可知烘焙受溫度的影響較大,而對於時間的影響較小,但變化較為規則。
另以NIRS光譜掃描經過遠紅外線烘焙後之茶樣其反射光譜之差異,隨著FIR
烘焙溫度之提升,NIRS吸光值反而下降;可見FIR烘焙對茶葉香氣之影響甚為顯著。
本研究已研製完成連續式遠紅外線茶葉烘焙機械試驗機,具有萎凋、乾燥、烘焙等三機一體的功能。機械構造簡單耐用,操作容易,有溫度、時間、茶葉進料量控制及具有自動翻轉茶葉之機構,使烘焙作業更加完善、提高效率、降低生產成本,以嘉惠茶業者。

By applying the far-infrared ray (FIR) to roast the partially fermented tea tends to retain its original flavor, reducing the roasting time, save the energy and lower down the tea processing costs, having the effects of upgrading tea production technology.
Roasting with FIR on machine-plucked tea (cv. Chinsin Oolong) under 90-100℃ for 2-4 hours had fine tea soup color, aroma and flavor, with tea appearance retaining original blackish green. FIR roasting with 110℃ and 6 hours resulted mild baked flavor; whereas roasting in 120℃ with 4 hours deteriorated tea quality, with yellow red soup color. The tea quality was the worst if roasting time was over 8 hours because of deep soup color, scorched flavor, bitter taste with sourness. For hand-plucked Chinsin Oolong the quality was the best under the conditions of 110℃ roasting for 6 hours. The worst quality was obtained with roasted temperature over 120℃ with 6 hours.
Tea soup pH decreased with the increase of roasted temperature and time. It is suggested that roasting high quality tea the appropriate temperature is around 90 -100℃ with roasting duration of 2-4 hours. For roasting middle and low grade tea, adjustment of FIR roasting temperature and time is needed to meet the quality requirements.
There were significant differences between effects of electric-thermal baking and FIR baking on tea associated with water content, tea soup pH, reducing sugar, amino acid and L-value. Effects on catechin content changes only restricted to EGCG. Caffeine concentration increased with the increase of baking temperature. This may be due to the increase of caffeine solubility after baking or caffeine separated from the complex of caffeine-tannate after baking. Decreases in phenol, folin, and C, EC, ECG, EGCG of catechin were obtained. Effects of baking temperatures on tea chemicals apparently were greater than that of baking duration.
NIRS was used to screen the reflection spectra of NIR baked tea. The NIRS absorbance of NIR baked tea decreased with increases of baking temperatures, revealing that obvious effects of FIR baking on tea aroma.
This study has also developed a continuous FIR baking machine of tested types, possessing functions of withering, drying and baking. The machine is durable, easy operative, having controls for temperature, time and tea leaf input and also having the function of automatically overturning the tea under baking.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/35534
其他識別: U0005-2208200813420800
Appears in Collections:生物產業機電工程學系

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