Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3575
標題: 使用銅核銲錫球之球柵陣列構裝銲點反應動力學與機械性質之研究
Studies of The Reaction Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of The Ball-Grid-Array Solder Joints Using Cu-cored Solder Balls
作者: 林惠川
Lin, Hui-Chuan
關鍵字: interfacial reaction;界面反應;mechanical property;BGA;Cu core;機械性質;球柵陣列構裝;銅核
出版社: 化學工程學系所
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Chan, “Interfacial Reactions of Sn-Cu Solder with Ni/Au Surface Finish on Cu pad during Reflow and Aging in Ball Grid Array Packages,” Materials Science and Engineering B 117, pp.246-253, 2005. 39.J. W. Yoon, S. W. Kim and S. B. Jung, “IMC Morphology, Interfacial Reaction and Joint Reliability of Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu Solder on Electrolytic Ni BGA Substrate,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 392, pp.247-252, 2005. 40.C. B. Lee, S.B. Jung, Y. E. Shin and C. C. Shur, “Effect of Isothermal Aging on Ball Shear Strength in BGA Joints,” Materials Transactions, Vol.43, No.8, pp.1858-1863, 2002. 41.J. W. Yoon, S. W. Kim and S. B. Jung, “IMC Growth and Shear Strength of Sn-Ag-Bi-In/Au/Ni/Cu BGA Joints During Aging,” Materials Transactions, Vol.45, No.3, pp.727-733, 2004. 42.K. Uenishi, T. Saeki, Y. Kohara, K. F. Kobayashi, I. Shoji, M. Nishiura and M. Yamamoto, “Effect of Cu in Pb Free Solder Ball on the Microstructure of BGA Joints with Au / Ni Coated Cu Pads,” Materials Transactions, Vol.42, No.5, pp.756-760, 2001. 43.S. Sakatani, Y. Koara, K. uenishi, K. F. Kobayashi and M. Yamamoto, “Development of Sn Based Multi Component Solder Balls with Cu core for BGA Package,” IWC-Korea, pp.450-455,2002. 44.K. Uenishi, Y. Kohara, S. Sakatani, K. F. Kobayashi and M. Yamamoto, “Melting and Joining Behavior of Sn/Ag and Sn-Ag/Sn-Bi Plating on Cu Core Ball,” Materials Transactions, Vol.43, No.8, pp.1833-1839, 2002. 45.I. Shohji, Y. Shiratori, H. Yoshida, M. Mizukami and A. Ichida, “Growth Kinetics of Reaction Layers in Flip Chip Joints with Cu-cored Lead-free Solder Balls,” Materials Transactions, Vol.45, No.3, pp.754-758, 2004. 46.R. K. Kinyanjui, A. Zribi and E. J. Cotts, “Effects of Reflow Conditions on the Formation of Au-Ni-Sn Compounds at the Interface of Au-Pb-Sn and Au-Sn Solder Joints with Ni Substrate,” 2002 Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp.161-167, 2002. 47.Binary alloy phase diagrams, ed. T.B. Massalski, (Materials Park, OH: ASM Intl., 1990). Sn-Ni 48.S. Anhock, H. Oppermann, C. Kallmayer, R. Aschenbrenner, L. Thomas and H. Reichl, 1998 IEEE/CPMT Berlin Intl Manufacturing Tech. Symp. Proc., pp.156, 1998.
摘要: 
由於球柵陣列構裝可供應較高密度的輸入/輸出(I/O)數等性能和較好的可靠度,球柵陣列構裝將被廣泛使用在微電子產業上。在球柵陣列構裝中,銲錫球是聚集在面積陣列上作為主要之連結,通常印刷電路板上的墊層主要以鎳/金層為主。在本研究中,主要是探討無銅核的錫鉛銲錫球和銅核銲錫球銲點中,經回銲後和固/固熱處理後,銲點的界面反應和機械性質。由於銅有較高的熔點,遠高於回銲之溫度,因此在回銲過程中銅核不會熔融,並且在固態時可抗任何變形的情況,因此可精確地控制銲點高度和共平面性。此外,相較於普遍的共晶銲料,銅亦具有優越的電性與熱傳等性質。因此,為因應未來提升BGA銲點可靠度更嚴苛之要求,使用銅核銲錫球可能是有效的方法之一。
在界面反應的研究中,銅核銲錫球銲點製作需做二次回銲處理。銅核銲錫球為一種複合式的銲錫球,它的內部是銅球,而銲料包覆於外層。而銅核將使用三種不同尺寸來做為銲接。在銅核銲錫球中,外層的銲料部份採用共晶錫鉛銲料。在回銲銲接後,試樣將經過120℃、160℃、175℃下,熱處理時間從24到960小時。回銲後,於共晶錫鉛銲點中,界面上只有Ni3Sn4生成,然後經固態熱處理期間,則有(AuxNi1-x)Sn4 回聚於界面上。在銅核銲錫球銲點中,有四種介金屬化合物生成,其中Cu3Sn和(Cu1-p-qAupNiq)6Sn5生成於銅核/銲料界面上,而Ni3Sn4和(Cu1-x-yAuxNiy)6Sn5 生成於銲料/鎳層界面上。由此可知,銅核加入BGA銲料內,可有效抑止(AuxNi1-x)Sn4的回聚,並且生成(Cu1-x-yAuxNiy)6Sn5進而取代之。錫鉛銲錫球和銅核銲錫球銲點的介金屬化合物成長情況大致上遵循拋物線定律。另外,再利用介金屬化合物厚度與熱處理時間,計算出各銲點的成長速率常數和活化能。
在機械性質的研究中,錫鉛銲錫球與銅核銲錫球的剪切與拉伸銲點強度會隨著固態熱處理的時間增加而有下降趨勢,但銅核銲點中強度下降速率較為緩慢。此外,銅核尺寸的大小對於銲點強度並沒有明顯之趨勢。由剪切與拉伸試驗也得知,銅核銲錫球銲點比錫鉛銲錫球銲點有較好之強度。

Due to the capabilities of providing higher input/output (I/O) density and better reliabilities, ball-grid-array (BGA) packaging has been widely used in microelectronic industry. In the BGA packaging, solder balls are assembled in area-array order onto the metallization finishes, often a bi-layer of Ni/Au, of the printed circuit board. In this study, interfacial reactions and mechanical properties of the BGA solder joints uses monolithic eutectic SnPb and Cu-cored solder balls after reflow and solid-state annealing. Due to the high melting point of copper, the Cu core does not melt and can stay in solid state against any deformation during reflow soldering, thus the solder joint height and the coplanarity can be accurately controlled. Moreover, copper also offers superior electrical and thermal conductivities than the common solder alloys. Thus, the usage of Cu-cored solder ball might be one of the effective methods for promoting the BGA reliability to fit the stricter demands in the future.
In the study of interfacial reactions, to fabricate the Cu-cored BGA solder joint, two reflow processes were conducted. The Cu-cored solder ball is a composite solder ball comprising the interior Cu sphere and the exterior solder layer. Cu-cores of three different sizes were used in the solder joints. Eutectic SnPb solder alloy is used to form the outer layer of the Cu-cored solder ball. After reflow soldering, the specimens were annealing at 120℃, 160℃, 175℃ for the annealing time ranged from 24 to 960 h. Only the Ni3Sn4 phase was formed in the monolithic eutectic SnPb solder joint after reflow, while the (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 phase regrouped to the joint interface during solid-state annealing. In the Cu-cored BGA solder joint, four intermetallic compounds were formed, i.e. Cu3Sn and (Cu1-p-qAupNiq)6Sn5 at the Cu-cored/solder interface and Ni3Sn4 and (Cu1-x-yAuxNiy)6Sn5 at the solder/Ni interface. The incorporation of a Cu core into the BGA solder joint effectively inhibits the (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 regrouping and the (Cu1-x-yAuxNiy)6Sn5 phase is formed at the joint interface instead. Growth of the intermetallic compounds formed in the monolithic and Cu-cored solder joints approximately obeys the parabolic law. In addition, intermetallic compounds thickness and annealing time, the growth rate constant and apparent activation energy value calculated for monolithic and Cu-cored solder balls joint.
In the study of mechanical properties, shear and tensile strengths of the monolithic and Cu-cored solder joints decrease with increasing solid-state annealing time, but the Cu-cored one has a slower degradation rate. Moreover, the Cu-core size have not a noticeable relationship. Shear and tensile tests also show that the mechanical strength of the Cu-cored solder joint is better than that of the monolithic solder joint.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3575
其他識別: U0005-2007200601575800
Appears in Collections:化學工程學系所

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