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Studies of The Reaction Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of The Ball-Grid-Array Solder Joints Using Cu-cored Solder Balls
|關鍵字:||interfacial reaction;界面反應;mechanical property;BGA;Cu core;機械性質;球柵陣列構裝;銅核||出版社:||化學工程學系所||引用:||1.陳信文, 陳立軒, 林永森, 陳志銘, “電子構裝技術與材料,”高立圖書有限公司. 2.K. N. Tu, “Recent advances on electromigration in very-large-scale-integration of interconnects,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 94(9), pp. 5451-5473, 2003. 3.R. J. Wassink, “Soldering in Electronics,” Electrochemical Pub. Ltd., pp.99, 1984. 4.A.Zribi, R. R. Chromik, R. Presthus, K. Teed, L. Zavalij, J. DeVita, J. Tova, Eric J. Cotts, James A, Clum, Robert Erich, A. Primavera, G. Westby, R. J. Coyle, and G. M. Wenger, “Solder Metallization Interdiffusion in Microelectronic Interconnects,” IEEE Transactions on Components and Packing Technologies, Vol.23, No.2, pp.383-387, 2000. 5.J. Glazer, P. A. Kramer, and J. W. Morris, Proceedings of the Technical Program, Surface Mount International, Vol. 1, pp. 629-639, 1991. 6.D. H. Daebler, Surface Mount Technology, pp. 43-46, 1991. 7.P. G. Kim and K. N. 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Cotts, “Effects of Reflow Conditions on the Formation of Au-Ni-Sn Compounds at the Interface of Au-Pb-Sn and Au-Sn Solder Joints with Ni Substrate,” 2002 Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp.161-167, 2002. 47.Binary alloy phase diagrams, ed. T.B. Massalski, (Materials Park, OH: ASM Intl., 1990). Sn-Ni 48.S. Anhock, H. Oppermann, C. Kallmayer, R. Aschenbrenner, L. Thomas and H. Reichl, 1998 IEEE/CPMT Berlin Intl Manufacturing Tech. Symp. Proc., pp.156, 1998.||摘要:||
在界面反應的研究中，銅核銲錫球銲點製作需做二次回銲處理。銅核銲錫球為一種複合式的銲錫球，它的內部是銅球，而銲料包覆於外層。而銅核將使用三種不同尺寸來做為銲接。在銅核銲錫球中，外層的銲料部份採用共晶錫鉛銲料。在回銲銲接後，試樣將經過120℃、160℃、175℃下，熱處理時間從24到960小時。回銲後，於共晶錫鉛銲點中，界面上只有Ni3Sn4生成，然後經固態熱處理期間，則有(AuxNi1-x)Sn4 回聚於界面上。在銅核銲錫球銲點中，有四種介金屬化合物生成，其中Cu3Sn和(Cu1-p-qAupNiq)6Sn5生成於銅核/銲料界面上，而Ni3Sn4和(Cu1-x-yAuxNiy)6Sn5 生成於銲料/鎳層界面上。由此可知，銅核加入BGA銲料內，可有效抑止(AuxNi1-x)Sn4的回聚，並且生成(Cu1-x-yAuxNiy)6Sn5進而取代之。錫鉛銲錫球和銅核銲錫球銲點的介金屬化合物成長情況大致上遵循拋物線定律。另外，再利用介金屬化合物厚度與熱處理時間，計算出各銲點的成長速率常數和活化能。
Due to the capabilities of providing higher input/output (I/O) density and better reliabilities, ball-grid-array (BGA) packaging has been widely used in microelectronic industry. In the BGA packaging, solder balls are assembled in area-array order onto the metallization finishes, often a bi-layer of Ni/Au, of the printed circuit board. In this study, interfacial reactions and mechanical properties of the BGA solder joints uses monolithic eutectic SnPb and Cu-cored solder balls after reflow and solid-state annealing. Due to the high melting point of copper, the Cu core does not melt and can stay in solid state against any deformation during reflow soldering, thus the solder joint height and the coplanarity can be accurately controlled. Moreover, copper also offers superior electrical and thermal conductivities than the common solder alloys. Thus, the usage of Cu-cored solder ball might be one of the effective methods for promoting the BGA reliability to fit the stricter demands in the future.
In the study of interfacial reactions, to fabricate the Cu-cored BGA solder joint, two reflow processes were conducted. The Cu-cored solder ball is a composite solder ball comprising the interior Cu sphere and the exterior solder layer. Cu-cores of three different sizes were used in the solder joints. Eutectic SnPb solder alloy is used to form the outer layer of the Cu-cored solder ball. After reflow soldering, the specimens were annealing at 120℃, 160℃, 175℃ for the annealing time ranged from 24 to 960 h. Only the Ni3Sn4 phase was formed in the monolithic eutectic SnPb solder joint after reflow, while the (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 phase regrouped to the joint interface during solid-state annealing. In the Cu-cored BGA solder joint, four intermetallic compounds were formed, i.e. Cu3Sn and (Cu1-p-qAupNiq)6Sn5 at the Cu-cored/solder interface and Ni3Sn4 and (Cu1-x-yAuxNiy)6Sn5 at the solder/Ni interface. The incorporation of a Cu core into the BGA solder joint effectively inhibits the (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 regrouping and the (Cu1-x-yAuxNiy)6Sn5 phase is formed at the joint interface instead. Growth of the intermetallic compounds formed in the monolithic and Cu-cored solder joints approximately obeys the parabolic law. In addition, intermetallic compounds thickness and annealing time, the growth rate constant and apparent activation energy value calculated for monolithic and Cu-cored solder balls joint.
In the study of mechanical properties, shear and tensile strengths of the monolithic and Cu-cored solder joints decrease with increasing solid-state annealing time, but the Cu-cored one has a slower degradation rate. Moreover, the Cu-core size have not a noticeable relationship. Shear and tensile tests also show that the mechanical strength of the Cu-cored solder joint is better than that of the monolithic solder joint.
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