Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3625
標題: 添加微量銅或銀元素對共晶錫鉍無鉛銲料電遷移之影響
Effect of small amount of copper or silver doping on electromigration of eutectic SnBi solder
作者: 黃志傑
Huang, Chih-Chieh
關鍵字: electromigration;電遷移;grain coarsening;microstructure;晶粒粗化;微結構
出版社: 化學工程學系所
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摘要: 
在無鉛化的趨勢下,傳統錫鉛銲料將被取代,共晶錫鉍銲料(Sn-58wt%Bi)為低溫銲料,是相當具有潛力的無鉛銲料之一。本研究主要利用矽基材上沈積銅/鉭薄膜,使用黃光微影、蝕刻等製程,製備所需的樣品圖形,並將銲料回銲於試片上,接著施以各種不同電流密度,探討電遷移效應對共晶錫鉍銲料微結構變化之影響。此外,共晶錫鉍銲料在高溫下存在微結構的不穩定性,容易發生嚴重的晶粒粗化而導致不均勻的相分佈,進而造成銲料機械性質的降低。文獻中曾提及銅的添加可以有效解決晶粒嚴重粗化的問題[45],因此本研究亦針對添加1wt%Cu即Sn-57wt%Bi-1wt%Cu之銲料進行電遷移之實驗。此外,亦針對0.5wt%銀的添加即Sn-57.5wt%Bi-0.5wt%Ag銲料進行相同之研究,瞭解微量銅、銀添加之影響。
在有效電流密度1.3×104A/cm2、溫度85℃下進行為期24~240小時之反應,另外亦進行一組未通電之熱處理實驗,從結果中發現在熱處理實驗中添加1wt%Cu明顯降低粗化速率,從2.8下降至0.5μm3/h,在電流應力影響下Cu的添加也可降低晶粒的粗化,不過卻會增強電遷移效應的影響,造成更多的鉍原子在陽極端累積。在7.3×104A/cm2之高電流密度下,突起物及孔洞的成長,分別在陽極端及陰極端觀察到,其中以鉍原子為主要的擴散物質,錫為次要擴散物質。另外發現添加0.5wt%Ag至共晶錫鉍銲料中,在銲料中生成之介金屬相Ag3Sn,於固態熱處理期間,並不會減緩晶粒的粗化,但在電流應力下,Ag3Sn可阻擋鉍原子往陽極端移動,進而在陽極端有較少量的鉍原子累積。

Due to the requirement of lead-free industry, the traditional Sn-Pb solder will soon be replaced. The eutectic Sn-58Bi solder alloy is one of the potential low melting temperature lead-free solders. The subject of this study is to investigate the electromigration effects on the eutectic Sn-Bi solder. By using the lithographic and etching techniques, the test sample is prepared by depositing a bilayer of Cu/Ta thin stripe on an oxidized Si substrate, followed by reflowing a tiny solder piece on the Cu stripe surface. After a careful polishing process, a thin solder stripe is fabricated. The solder stripe is then stressed by different current densities, and after stressing the microstructural evolution of the solder stripe is examined. Three solder compositions are used, i.e. Sn-58wt%Bi, Sn-57wt%Bi-1wt%Cu, and Sn-57.5wt%Bi-0.5wt%Ag. The results of the last two solders can be used to understand the effects of Cu or Ag addition on electromigration.
Experimental results indicate that the addition of 1 wt%Cu can effectively reduce the grain coarsening rate of the SnBi solder from 2.8 to 0.5 m3/h. However, the electromigration effect is enhanced in the SnBi solder stressed by 1.3×104 A/cm2 at 85℃. More Bi atoms accumulate at the anode side. In addition to the migration of Bi at higher current density, 7.3×104 A/cm2, the migration of Sn is also observed, and the Sn migration takes place after the Bi migration. It is found that doping of 0.5 wt%Ag in the eutectic SnBi solder leads to the formation of Ag3Sn IMC. No noticeable retardant effect on grain coarsening rate is found in the Ag-doped solder. But under current stressing, the large-sized Ag3Sn IMC can hinder the movement of the Bi atoms, which results in a small amount of the mass accumulation of Bi at the anode.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3625
其他識別: U0005-1107200714560400
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