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標題: 共晶SnZn銲料與塊材和薄膜Cu基材間界面反應之探討
Interfacial reactions of eutectic SnZn solder on bulk and thin-film Cu substrates
作者: 陳志豪
Chen, Chih-hao
關鍵字: eutectic SnZn solder;共晶錫鋅銲料;Interfacial reactions;bulk and thin-film Cu;界面反應;塊材與薄膜銅
出版社: 化學工程學系所
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SnPb銲料已廣泛使用在微電子構裝中作為金屬的連接材料,由於具有低成本、低熔點溫度、且對於基材有極佳的潤濕性。然而,在電子產品中錫鉛銲錫,因為鉛具有毒性會對人體健康與環境造成威脅,因此,尋找替代鉛的無鉛銲錫(lead-free solder)是勢在必行的。在眾多的合金之中,基於熔點的考量,共晶Sn-9Zn銲料應是另一較佳的選擇,其熔點溫度198℃接近傳統的Sn-Pb銲料(183℃),加上取得成本較低,使得Sn-Zn銲料在無鉛銲料的選擇上更具有其優勢。
在電子構裝中銲料和金屬化層間之界面反應已成為一重要之議題,因為此研究可提供有效之資訊於銲料接點可靠度的分析。不過大部分所研究的Cu基材都是塊材(bulk)的尺寸,而在先進之構裝銲點中如覆晶(flip-chip)中之凸塊下金屬 (under bump metallization,UBM),Cu金屬化層大多為薄膜(thin film)的形式,由於bulk與thin film所能供給參與反應的Cu來源有極大的差異,因此預期thin film Cu之介金屬化合物之成長動力學與bulk Cu將有所差異,故本研究之目的在探討thin film和bulk Cu之差異。
本研究使用之塊材Cu厚度為0.5 mm,而薄膜Cu基材的厚度分別為4000 Å、3 μm、6 μm與10 μm。實驗結果發現在此五種不同厚度之Cu基材會導致主要反應產物的差異,以及產物形態之不同。在塊材、6 μm與10 μm薄膜Cu基材的形式中,於回銲和固態熱處理期間,Cu5Zn8介金屬化合物(IMC)是主要之反應產物。回銲期間可觀察到Cu5Zn8 IMC之結構大致上維持不變。但是,在固態熱處理期後,bulk Cu之Cu5Zn8 IMC會破裂並在Cu5Zn8/Cu界面處生成Cu6Sn5和Cu3Sn兩相。而在薄膜4000 Å與3 μm Cu基材之回銲下可觀察到CuZn5之熟化反應,CuZn5 IMC會產生形態之改變,隨著時間之增加,CuZn5會由層狀慢慢轉變成為扇貝狀之形態。在固態熱處理後,經由界面微結構即時觀察發現,在bulk Cu基材中接近界面處會發生銲料之變形,然而,在薄膜4000 Å Cu基材中,CuZn5晶粒會遭受擠壓而突起至界面處。

SnPb olders have been used as the principal joining materials in electronic packaging due to many well-known advantages, like low cost, good wettability, and proper melting point. However, the usage of Pb in electronic products has a serious concern because the toxicity of Pb may cause detrimental effects on environment and human health. Therefore, searching for a proper candidate to replace SnPb solders is currently an urgent issue in electronic industry. Various Pb-free solders have been proposed, where eutectic SnZn alloy (Sn-9 wt% Zn) is one of the most potential candidates because of its lower cost and a melting point (198.5 ℃) that is closer to that of the conventional eutectic SnPb alloy (183 ℃).
Interfacial reactions between solders and metallic substrates have been an important subject in electronic packaging, However, the Cu substrate is usually in the form of thin film in advanced electronic packaging, such as in the under-bump-metallization(UBM) of a flip-chip joint . The major difference between bulk and thin-film substrates is that the availability of the component that is involved in the interfacial reaction is limited for the thin-film substrate but is almost infinite for the bulk one. In this present study, two types of Cu substrates were used.
Interfacial reactions between eutectic SnZn solder and bulk or thin-film Cu substrates are investigated and compared. The thicknesses of bulk and thin-film Cu substrates are 0.5 mm and 4000 Å、3 μm、6 μm、10 μm, respectively. Different dominant reaction products and interfacial microstructures are observed in these two types of interfacial reactions. In the bulk Cu、3 μm and 6 μm type, the Cu5Zn8 phase is the dominant reaction product under reflow and solid-state annealing. However, the CuZn5 phase becomes the dominant reaction product in the 4000 Å and 3 μm thin-film Cu type. The Cu5Zn8 phase in the bulk Cu type remains uniform microstructure after reflow. But after solid-state annealing, the Cu5Zn8 phase in the bulk Cu type fractures and the Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn phases are formed at the Cu5Zn8/Cu interface. The CuZn5 phase in the thin-film Cu type ripens after reflow and the phase morphology is transformed from uniform layer into separated scallops. In-situ observation of the interfacial microstructure after solid-state annealing reveals that prominent deformation occurs in the solder region close to the interface in the bulk Cu type.While in the 4000 Å thin-film Cu type, the CuZn5 grain is extruded out of the interface.
其他識別: U0005-1107200721003300
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