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標題: 轉譯控制參與阿拉伯芥幼苗光形態發育之分子研究
Molecular assessment of translational control in photomorphogenic Arabidopsis
作者: 劉明容
Liu, Ming-Jung
關鍵字: photomorphogenesis;光形態發育;polysome;translation;核糖體蛋白質;蛋白質轉譯
出版社: 生物科技學研究所
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植物生長與發育的各個階段都受到環境中『光』訊息的調控,植物會調整體內基因的表現來因應外在光環境的變化;在阿拉伯芥幼苗接受光照的早期,許多基因的表現會增加或減少,讓幼苗可以從暗形態發育 (skotomorphogenesis) 轉為光形態發育 (photomorphogenesis),先前的研究結果顯示這些基因表現的改變可以經由轉錄或蛋白質降解機制來控制,然而,植物體內是否存在其他的調控機制仍有待進一步探討。本論文發現:植物在接受光照數小時之後, 會快速的提高蛋白質轉譯的效率,相較於轉錄控制只調控數百個基因之表現,轉譯控制則作用於數千個基因,使植物可以根據光環境的改變,迅速合成與光合作用或是轉譯機制相關的蛋白質,進而促進植物的生長發育。進一步的分析發現:控制蛋白質轉譯效率的機制與信使核醣核酸 (messenger RNA; mRNA) 本身的結構特性有關,長度短或穩定度高的信使核醣核酸在光照下有較高的轉譯效率;另外,研究也顯示信使核醣核酸 5’ 未轉譯序列 (5’ untranslated region; 5’ UTR) 上的TAGGGTTT順式因子(cis-element)能夠增進信使核糖核酸的轉譯效率。我們更進一步探討在光照中,光訊息接收與傳導因子是否參與調控蛋白質轉譯。研究結果發現光敏素A直接參與遠紅光下轉譯效率的增加,COP1則在暗形態發育時期抑制蛋白質轉譯效率。經由磷酸化蛋白質體實驗, 我們發現光照下,光敏素A會促進核糖體蛋白質RPS6的磷酸化;這個結果顯示光敏素A、COP1以及RPS6可能會共同調控在黑暗與遠紅光下蛋白質轉譯效率的改變。由於之前對光訊息的研究較偏重在轉錄控制和蛋白質降解部分,此論文研究結果為相關領域加入蛋白質轉譯控制的概念,為光訊息傳導的相關研究開啟另一嶄新的方向。

Environmental “light” plays a vital role in regulating plant growth and development. Transcriptomic profiling has been widely used to examine how light regulates mRNA levels on a genome-wide scale, but, the global role of translational regulation in the response to light is unknown. Through a transcriptomic comparison of steady-state and polysome-bound mRNAs, we reveal a clear impact of translational control on thousands of genes, in addition to transcriptomic changes, during photomorphogenesis. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins are preferentially regulated at the translational level, which possibly contributes to the enhanced translation efficiency. We also reveal that mRNAs regulated at the translational level share characteristics of longer half-lives and shorter cDNA length, and that transcripts with a cis-element, TAGGGTTT, in their 5' untranslated region have higher translatability. My research also investigated how light signals modulate the downstream translational machinery for the translational control. By examining the polysome profiling of mutants defective in photoreceptors or light signal components, I revealed that the light-triggered translational activation is impaired in phyA211 mutant under far-red light whereas more mRNAs are actively translated in cop1-4 mutant at the skotomorphogenic stage. Phosphoproteomic analyses further showed that far-red light enhanced the phosphorylation of a translational regulator, ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6), in a phyA-dependent manner. These results implied that phyA, COP1 and RPS6 contribute to the light-triggered translational control. In this study, we discovered a previously neglected aspect of gene expression regulation during Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis. Further mechanistic studies on these signaling components and the molecular signatures associated with the preferentially translated mRNAs will uncover the nature of the light signal cascade on translational control.
其他識別: U0005-2806201210565200
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