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標題: 全水發泡系統製備不黃變軟質聚胺酯發泡體
Preparation of a non-yellowing flexible polyurethane foam by using all water foaming system
作者: 柯耀盛
Ke, Yao-Sheng
關鍵字: non-yellowing;發泡體;polurethane foam;Aliphatic isocyanate;聚胺酯;不黃變;脂肪族異氰酸鹽
出版社: 化學工程學系所
引用: 1.臭氧層保護資訊站, 2.Klempner, D.; Frisch, K.C. In Handbook of Polymeric Foams and Foam Technology; Hanser, 1991, 404. 3. Roux, J.D. HCFC141b现状及HFCs最新进展, 聚氨酯中国95’國際會議論文集, 1995, 41~44. 4.Singh, S.N.; Lynch, J.J. Journal of Cellular Plastics 1996 , 6 (32) , 553~578. 5.Saunders, H.J.; Frisch, K.G. Polyurethanes interscience 1961, Part 1, p205. 6.Servay, T.; Voelkel, R.; Schmiedberger, H. Polymer 1999, 41, 5247. 7.山西省化工研究所,聚胺酯彈性體手冊,化學工業出板社,2001. 8.Kiyotake, Morimoto. US5147897, 1992. 9.河守章一.; 高木將光. JP2000226429 2000. 10.Jung-Shun, Ou. EP1721720A1 2005. 11.守屋敏田. JP2003-261643 2003. 12.鐘正宏, 聚胺酯發泡體之耐黃變性質與光穩定性質研究, 碩士論文, 勤益技術學院, 2006. 13.李小斌.; 曹宏斌.; 張懿. 中國塑料 2004, 18, 7. 14.Fishback, T. L.; Reichel, C. J. US5686500 1997. 15.Schumacher, D.W.; Magnus, J. US5627221 , 1997. 16.潘國龍, 利用二氧化碳發泡製備抗熱硬質發泡體之研究, 碩士論文, 國立中興大學, 2004. 17.Wirpaza, Z. In Polyurethanes Chemistry Technology and Applications; Ellis Horwood, 1993
隨著聚胺酯發泡體在日常生活的應用層面之日趨廣泛,人們對於聚胺酯發泡體的黃變要求也有愈來愈嚴苛之勢,而傳統的軟硬質發泡體皆賴芳香族多元異氰酸鹽為主原料,因此均有嚴重黃變的缺陷,且在製程時使用會破壞臭氧層的氯氟烴(CFCs)或氫氯氟烴(HCFCs)當發泡劑,已無法符合社會各方面之期待及需求。本研究論文的目地,在於使用不變色的脂肪族異氰酸鹽(IPDI)取代TDI為主原料,以一次入料混合法(One-Shot) 由常溫製作聚胺酯發泡體,並以綠色化學概念採以全水當發泡劑之新配方,避免導致臭氧層的破壞,而發展出製備不變色之脂肪族聚胺酯軟(硬)質發泡體。
在目前文獻中脂肪族聚胺酯發泡體之製程不外使用預聚物法、混合異氰酸鹽法及模具加熱法等三大改進方向,顯然是為補強IPDI或其他異氰酸鹽較TDI或MDI反應性上之巨大差距而設計的。本研究突破已往方法,成功使用一次入料混合法,成功的製備出脂肪族(IPDI)聚胺酯發泡體。能在研究中突破的原因,是因針對聚胺酯發泡體配方中的催化劑、水含量、鏈長劑種類、交聯劑及搭配商業之改質長鏈三元醇,做各式各樣之配方調整而成,與傳統商業用之芳香族(TDI)發泡體相比較,基本的成泡指數及性質相比擬上已相近,在抗張(1.89 kg/cm2,比TDI系統增加2.2倍)、撕裂(1.47 kg/cm,比TDI系統增加1.7倍)、延伸率(355 %,比TDI系統增加1.6倍)等機械性質上甚至比芳香族發泡體有更佳的表現。總結而言,本研究以符合綠色化學的概念,成功地以全水發泡製作脂肪族聚胺酯發泡體及新配方,有助於此等材料的進一步實用於工業化。

Due to wide-spread penetrations of light-colored polyurethane foams (PU foams) in all faucet of life, there is a strong demand for non-yellowing PU products today in industrial applications. Since traditional PU foams are mostly made from aromatic polyisocyanates such as TDI and MDI as their basic raw materials, they all show strong propensity to become yellowish in color especially upon exposure to sunlight and high heat. Furthermore, uses of ozone-depleting CFCs and HCFCs blowing agents in the traditional foaming process have become the target of strong criticism and has been mandated for replacement. The purpose of our study was to use IPDI to replace TDI as the basic isocyanate raw material in PU foam formulations. In the meantime, attempts were made to develop one-shot, 100 % all water foaming process starting from ambient temperature in compliance with the general principles of green chemistry guidelines.
In recent literature describing foaming process using aliphatic isocyanates, the technologies are basically relied upon (1) pre-polymer approach, (2) mixed aliphatic/aromatic formulation, and (3) heated molding process to compensate for the lower reactivity of aliphatic isocyanates. Contrary to these approaches, our present research has successfully developed a one-shot free-rise foaming process using IPDI as the main raw material. In order to accomplish this change, our research have made several important break-through by revising new formulation especially in (1) catalyst mix, (2) adjustment of water content, (3) addition of chain extenders and crosslinkers, and(4) utilization of long-chained polyols. By doing so, the general performances of our new non-yellowing foam products are comparable to those of the traditional TDI based products. In certain mechanical properties in areas such as tensile strength, split tear strength, and elongation our measured values of 1.89 kg/cm2, 1.47 kg/cm, and 355 % respectively have out-performed the old materials. In short, new foam formulations based on IPDI has been successfully formulated a 100 % all water one-shot PU flexible foam of acceptable properties. The new foaming process seems to be more compatible with green chemistry guidelines and could be adapted to industrial scale production.
其他識別: U0005-2708200714175200
Appears in Collections:化學工程學系所

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