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Isolation and Purification of Bioactive Materials from Propolis and Rice Bran by Using Supercritical Fluids
|關鍵字:||超臨界流體;supercritical fluid;水溶性蜂膠;米糠油;萃取;脫酸;DHCA;米糠醇;癌細胞生長抑制;water-soluble propolis;rice bran oil;extraction;deacidification;DHCA;γ-oryzanol;growth inhibition of cancer cells||出版社:||化學工程學系所||引用:||Aga, H., T. Shibuya, T. Sugimoto, M. Kurimoto and S. Nakajima, “Isolation and Identification of Antimicrobial Compounds in Brazilian Propolis,” Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 58, 945-946 (1994). Aguilar-Garcia, C., G. Gavino, M. Baragaño-Mosqueda, P. Hevia and V. C. Gavino, “Correlation of Tocopherol, Tocotrienol, γ-Oryzanols and Total Polyphenol Content in Rice Bran with Different Antioxidant Capacity Assays,” Food Chemistry, 102, 1228-1232 (2007). Akao, Y., H. Maruyama, K. Matsumoto, K. Ohguchi, K. Nishizawa, T. Sakamoto, Y. Araki, S. Mishima and Y. Nozawa, “Cell Growth Inhibitory Effect of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives from Propolis on Human Tumor Cell Lines,” Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 26, 1057-1059 (2003). Akihisa, T., K. Yasukawa, M. Yamaura, M. Ukiya, Y. 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首先以熱壓流體乳化萃取程序，萃取蜂膠中的類黃酮、咖啡酸苯乙酯與酚酸類物質，並產製脂溶及水溶性樣品。製備出的水溶性蜂膠濃度可達35.2 mg/mL，高於未利用此項技術所製備樣品的44%。在清除DPPH自由基的表現上，水溶性蜂膠樣品具有相當優異的效果，其EC50值低至16 μg/mL；在癌細胞體外活性試驗方面，人類血癌細胞HL-60對於水溶性蜂膠萃出液非常敏感，其抑制作用相當明顯，EC50值亦低至11 μg/mL。此外，研究並以超臨界二氧化碳添加乙酸乙酯共溶劑，萃取巴西蜂膠中抗癌成份3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid（DHCA）。結果顯示，乙酸乙酯的添加比例為主要影響DHCA萃取效率與純度的變因。在207 bar、323 K及添加比例達6 wt%的條件下，DHCA的純度為41.2 wt%。在癌細胞體外試驗方面，超臨界萃出物及95 wt% DHCA對於人類血癌與直腸癌皆有生長抑制作用，EC50值分別降至56 μg/mL與79 μg/mL。
最後，進行實驗室級與小型試製級超臨界二氧化碳萃取米糠油及脫酸程序。結果顯示，利用實驗室級萃取程序，在350 bar與313 K下，油脂萃出產率為17.5%，且米糠醇萃取效率可達84.9%。另外，從二因子反應曲面實驗設計法得知，萃取程序中，壓力效應對於米糠醇濃縮倍數的提升及游離脂肪酸濃縮倍數的降低較溫度效應顯著。在試製級萃取實驗的放大程序中。以超臨界二氧化碳在300 bar與313 K條件下，萃出油產率為15.7%，且油中游離脂肪酸濃度為3.75%。在超臨界二氧化碳脫酸程序方面，利用2700克二氧化碳，在250 bar與353 K條件下，可成功地從13克米糠油中脫除游離脂肪酸至濃度為0.13%，其去除率可達97.8%。另外，從三因子反應曲面實驗設計法得知，二氧化碳使用量及壓力對於程序中三酸甘油酯的保留率及游離脂肪酸的脫除率為主要的影響變因。
In this study, high-pressure fluids extraction was applied to extract bioactive compounds from nature plant materials. Experiments were divided into two parts, one focused on producing water-soluble propolis and extracting anticancer compounds from Brazilian propolis, the other emphasized on producing rice bran oil.
Firstly, hot pressurized fluid extraction of seven flavonoids, caffeic acid phenethyl ester and four phenolic acids from Brazilian propolis lumps was done to generate fat-soluble and water-soluble extracts. The solid content of water-soluble extract obtained by hot pressurized water in the presence of 29% natural surfactant was 35.2 mg/mL and was 44% greater than that obtained without natural surfactant. The EC50 value of the free radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl of the emulsified hot pressurized water extract was the lowest, and presented the strongest anti-oxidation ability among all of the extracts. In-vitro cytotoxicity indicated that the water-soluble extract strongly suppressed the growth of leukemia (HL-60, U937), lung cancer (A549, CH27) and liver cancer (Hep G2, Hep 3B) cells in a concentration-dependent behavior.
The work followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extractions of 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA) from Brazilian propolis lumps and studied inhibitive effect of the SC-CO2 extracts on the growth of three cancer cells. The maximum amount of DHCA, 91.9 mg/g, was obtained by Soxhlet ethyl acetate extraction and the 41.2 wt% pure DHCA was recovered using SC-CO2 at 207 bar and 323 K with 6 wt% ethyl acetate addition. The effects of temperature and the addition of ethyl acetate on the extraction efficiency and purity of DHCA, examined using a two factorial central composite response surface methodology, indicated that the effect of co-solvent was significant than that of temperature. The cell concentrations following growth inhibition ranged from 10 μg/mL to 500 μg/mL, indicating that the SC-CO2 extracts and 95 wt% DHCA effectively suppress the growth of human leukemia (HL-60) and colon (Colo 205) cancer cells.
Finally, SC-CO2 extraction and deacidification of rice bran oil were examined in this study. In searching for a suitable range of lab-scale extraction conditions, SC-CO2 extraction at 350 bar and 313 K indicated that the total oil yield was 17.5% and the extraction efficiency of γ-oryzanols was 84.9%, when 1200 g of carbon dioxide consumed in 4 hr. Furthermore, SC-CO2 extractions with pressure ranged from 250 bar to 350 bar and temperature ranged from 313 K to 333K were designed using a response surface methodology and performed to determine the effects on concentration of γ-oryzanols, free fatty acids and triglycerides in the extracted oil. Pressure is more significant than temperature in increasing the concentration of γ-oryzanols and in decreasing the concentration of free fatty acids. In addition, pilot-scale SC-CO2 extraction at 300 bar and 313 K from 1.03 kg powdered rice bran indicated a total yield of oil of 15.7% with a free fatty acids content of 3.75%, obtained from 20.5 kg of carbon dioxide in 8 hr. In SC-CO2 deacidifications, pressure ranged from 200 bar to 300 bar, temperature ranged from 343 K to 363 K and consumption of carbon dioxide ranged from 900 g to 2700 g, the removal efficiency of free fatty acids from 13 g extracted oil in deacidification at 250 bar and 353 K reached 97.8% using 2700 g of carbon dioxide. Furthermore, three-factor center composite scheme of response surface methodology was employed in investigating SC-CO2 deacidifications of the SC-CO2 extracted oil, which demonstrated that pressure and consumption of carbon dioxide are significant in retaining triglycerides and in removing free fatty acids from the rice bran oil.
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