Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36654
標題: 社區民眾對淹水災害認知及因應之研究
A Study of Perceptions of and Responses to Inundation Disaters by Flood-Prone Area Residents-Using Lu-gang Flood-Prone Area in Chang Hua County as An example
作者: 張梅菁
Chang, Mei-Ching
關鍵字: Inundation;淹水;Flooding;Perception;Non-engineering;認知;非工程
出版社: 農村規劃研究所
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摘要: 
在台灣從5到11月降雨季,溪河的地勢較低漥處,常常遭遇幾公分到2-5公尺的淹水災害。這些災害通常是因為大自然和人為破壞,導致排水系統無法發揮功效,以排除當地的降雨和從上游集水區所流下的洪水。這些發生在過去的淹水問題所造成的嚴重性和範圍,在不同時間和地點有顯著的不同。
像許多城市,在台灣面對淹水問題的處理大多以工程方法為主,如築堤防、排水系統、抽水機設置和淹水疏散等等。因為工程方法大多需要大量的財政支出,而且也不能達到完全滿意的結果。此外,非工程措施包括有民眾支持,和參與淹水災害的事先預防行動(如將財物搬移至高處不易淹水的位置) 和避開、離開易淹水地區,能大大降低生命和財物方面的損失。
本研究選擇台灣彰化縣鹿港鎮內二處易淹水地區,探討民眾對於淹水災害的認知,及參與減輕當地淹水災害非工程措施的意見。主要項目包括A.從淹水紀錄去了解幾處易淹水地區的範圍和持續時間;B.分析當地居民對於(1)淹水特性的認知 (2)關於防止和減輕淹水問題是政府和居民的相對責任;C.詢問當地居民對於參與淹水災害中非工程措施的支持意願;D.徵詢政府、學術和水利專業工作人員對建立當地居民參與非工程措施的觀念是否認為值得和可行。
本研究發現鹿港鎮易淹水地區主要因為地勢較低及排水不良所造成淹水問題。淹水是由於強大的暴雨集中降雨量,而非上游集水區所流下的洪水。淹水頻率不高、深度通常幾公分至最多30- 60公分、淹水時間大部份很短,不會超過一天。如果排水系統可以適當地檢查和略作改善,將能大大地減輕淹水的問題。換句話說,鹿港地區淹水有三項特性─頻率不高、深度約30- 60公分、時間不長、水清不濁。因此,作為設計和執行地方民眾參與消減淹水災害計畫的地區,當是一個很好的選擇。然而,從訪談結果顯示出儘管大多數民眾知道淹水的原因和嚴重性,他們仍期望政府能擔當解決淹水災害問題的最大責任。多數政府、學術和水利專業工作人員,大都認同地方民眾參與和實施非工程消減淹水災害措施的好處,因此可考慮試辦。早年(1950~1980)期間的台灣,民眾常參加維護自己家園、清理環境的公民服務。然而,在過去的30年民主化的過程中,這樣的地方公眾參與服務精神,似乎消減了很多。本研究建議可透過學校和媒體實施教育宣導計劃,以提高民眾對淹水災害認知並建立參與公共服務的精神和作為,來協助政府減輕洪水、土石流等土石災害。

During the heavy rainfall season from May-November, many lowland and depression areas along creeks and rivers in Taiwan often subjected to water inundation from a few centimeters to 2-5 meters. These disasters are usually resulting from that natural and man-made drainage systems' incapability to properly discharge high intensity local rainfalls and/or water flows from upstream watersheds. The severities and extents of flooding problems that occurred in the past varies significantly in locations and time.
Like many countries, the flooding problems in Taiwan are mainly dealt with engineering methods such as building dikes, drainage systems, water pumping and flood diversions, …etc.
Engineering methods alone often require very heavy financial investments and do not always produce complete satisfactory results. On the other hand, non-engineering measures like early flood-warnings, preparatory actions and evacuations that were supported and participated by residents in the potentially flood-prone communities may greatly help reduce flooding damages to properties and lives.
This study selected 2 flood-prone communities in Lu-gang Township of Chang-hua County in central Taiwan to investigate the perceptions and responses of their residents regarding participation in mitigation of local inundation/flooding disasters. Records on inundation/flooding severities area extents, and duration are analyzed, the perceptions of local residents related to (1) flooding causes and (2) relative responsibilities of governments and residents in preventing and reducing inundation problems were obtained by interviews. During the interviews, the willingness of local residents in participating non-engineering methods of mitigation inundation disasters was also asked. In addition, government, academic and practicing professionals were also interviewed with regard to the desirability and feasibility of local participation in inundation mitigation.
It was found that flood-prone areas in Lu-gang Township are mainly located in local low ground depressions with poor drainage. Inundations were caused by heavy rainstorms without water flows from upstream watersheds. Inundations were not frequent, once every one or two years. The inundation depths of flooding water are usually from only a few centimeters to a maximum of 30-60 cm. The durations of inundation are mostly very short that do not last more than one day. If the drainage systems can be properly checked and slightly improved, the flooding problems would be greatly reduced. In other words, the characteristic of inundation in Lu-gang Township is a good choice to design and implement suggest that a local participation plan for flooding mitigation. However, our interviews showed that despite most residents know the causes and severities of past inundations; they still expect the government to take almost all the responsibilities in solving their inundation/flooding problems with preferably engineering methods and minimal resident participation. The majorities of professionals asked all agreed on the benefits of local residents in non-engineering measures and felt a pilot project may be considered. In the 1950-1980 periods, the residents in Taiwan are often asked and participated in local environment clean up project for doing deeds for the public. However, this type of public spirits seemed to disappear over past 30 years during the democratic ligation. It is suggested that a public education and promotion program be designed and implemented through schools and media to restore and enhance public willingness to fulfill responsibilities in helping reduce the soil and water disasters, such as inundation, and debris flows.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36654
Appears in Collections:農村規劃研究所

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