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The effects of soil amendment on the productivity of peanut [Arachis hypogaea L.] and rice [Oryza sativa L.] grown in acid soil
Chang, Chien Sheng
|關鍵字:||peanut [Arachis hypogaea L.];落花生;rice [Oryza sativa L.];acid soil;amendment;水稻;酸性土壤;土壤改良劑||出版社:||農藝學系||摘要:||
A large area of agricultural land in Taiwan is covered by acid infertile soil and the area affected by acidity is increasing each year. Soil acidity factors adversely affect the survival, growth and production by increasing the availability of aluminum and manganese to toxin level, and by reducing the availability of phosphate. In order to realize the influence of acid soil on the growth of peanut [ Archis hypoga L.] and rice [Oryza sativa L.]. Soil sample were collected from two different place; Hualien and I-Lan which pH value are below 5.5. Samples of the soil, either mixed with two amendment materials containing PO4-2, Si, Ca and Mg (FMP); the other containing CaO and MgO (by-product of lime), or only chemical fertilize (check) and blank in pots (605x265x220 mm).
From the results indicated that applying soil amendment “FMP” can elevated soil pH by an average of 1.3-1.5 and 1.1-1.3 for upland and paddy field, respectively. Lime soil can elevated soil pH by an average of -1.3 for both peanut and rice after harvest in whole experiment crop season. Soil available phosphate content increased 5-20 ppm and available calcium in soil increased slightly than control. Miner element such as magnesium and iron content in soil decreased slightly, while the toxin element copper and manganese decreased significantly than check.
Plant growth in acid soil (check) exhibited poor characteristics, such as short plant height, less branch and pods per plant; small seed size and full-kernel percentage decreased significantly, same results showed for rice, especially root length was inhibited. The highest yield loss in acid soil (check) were 23% and 20% for peanut and rice, respectively due to lower nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plants. At flowering (peanut) or heading ( rice) stage, the root activity was significant lower than the soil amendment “FMP” treatment in pots. In field test of peanut, 7 days after side dressing (FMP), then measured root activity showed that significantly higher than the blank.
Peanut and rice in grown acid soil, from the soil sample and plant tissue analysis indicated that available phosphorus deficiency seems that was the main factor influence leaf chlorophyll content, so that the chlorophyll a/b ratio increased to influence the photosynthesis. From the analysis of changes in chlorophyll fluorescence emission results indicated that the paramaters Fv/Fm (the efficiency of excitation capture by open PSII reaction centers), Fsm (the maximal fluorescence in the steady-state lighr-adapted condition) and Yield (energy conversion) are lower than that soil amendment treatment. The results indicated soil amendment in acid soil was indeed very efficient to improve soil characteristics and plant photosynthesis ability on peanut and rice when they grew in acid soil.
|Appears in Collections:||農藝學系|
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