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Difference of drought tolerance between Indica-type IR64 and Japonica-type rice and the relationship betweenaccumulation and abscisic acid in tolerance mechanism
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本試驗首先以秈稻IR64品種建立耐旱篩選系統，於不同生育期進行乾旱處理，發現不同發育階段均隨滲透潛勢降低而抑制生長，其中胚芽鞘伸長抑制對乾旱最為敏感，並且和幼苗傷害指數的乾旱反應呈現二次曲線的關係，可作為生育早期篩選耐旱性的指標。本試驗以IR64 M1和M2世代突變庫進行篩選，發現似乎2 mM疊氮化鈉誘變選出較多乾旱感性突變體，5 mM則選出較多乾旱耐性突變體，連續篩選結果顯示在M3和M4世代中耐旱性之變異性大，且尚未穩定。
秈稻與稉稻係起源於不同地區，對水分的需求亦不同，本試驗再以秈稻IR64和稉稻TNG67進行耐旱性差異之研究，根據此兩型水稻的胚芽鞘伸長及幼苗傷害指數調查結果顯示，IR64較TNG67耐旱。進一步分析脯氨酸含量發現，IR64根部可於-0.2 MPa PEG處理3天後顯著累積脯氨酸，其合成酵素P5CS也於PEG處理後逐漸增加，同時降解酵素PDH的活性則逐漸降低；相反地，TNG67於PEG處理後脯氨酸含量無明顯增加，P5CS活性亦無提升，且PDH卻不減反增。另外，外施植物荷爾蒙ABA後發現，可誘導脯氨酸累積，與PEG處理的結果相似。因此推論，乾旱下經由ABA誘導脯氨酸累積，以助於提升水稻之耐旱性。
In order to screen drought-sensitive and -tolerant rice mutants, rice growth responses to drought at different development stages were studied. Experimental results showed that rice growth was inhibited with decreasing water potential, and the coleoptile elongation had higher sensitivity to and proportionally inhibited by water stress, which was similar to the response of injury index of rice seedlings. After serial screening of drought-S and -T mutants, which were mutated from Indica-type rice var. IR64 by sodium azide, it seemed that more T-mutants were observed from 5 mM sodium azide mutation. However, drought tolerance trait is still variable in M3 and M4 generations. Due to the significant difference of drought-tolerance between Indica- and Japonica-type rice plants, based on the coleoptile elongation inhibition and injury index of seedlings, the role of osmoregulation through proline accumulation in roots played in drought tolerance was explored. Both an increased activity of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and a decreased activity of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) in tolerant Indica-type IR64, confirmed the osmoregulation. In addition, that proline accumulation in roots thought ABA mediation under water stress was also proven by the exogenous application of ABA.
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