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Numerical Simulation of Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Flow in the Blast Furnace Hearth
|關鍵字:||Blast Furnace;高爐;Thermal Flow;Simulation;Deadman;Porosity;熱流;數值模擬;爐蕊;孔隙度||出版社:||化學工程學系所||引用:|| "http://baike.baidu.com/view/131886.htm."  "http://www.thepotteries.org/shelton/blast_furnace.htm."  C. A. Klein and F. K. Fujihara, "Hearth Wear Control at CST''s No. 1 Blast Furnace Aiming 25 Years," presented at AISTech Proceedings, 2004.  A. Shinotake, "Liquid Flow Analysis in Blast Furnace Hearth Considering Taphole Location," presented at McMaster Symposium on Iron and Steelmaking, 2001.  F. Yoshikawa and J. Szekely, "Mechanism of Blast Furnace Hearth Erosion," Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 8, pp. 159-168, 1981.  S. Fujihara, S. Tamura, M. Ikeda, and M. Nakai, "High-Duty Carbon Blocks," Nippon Steel Tech. Rep pp. 1-6, 1989.  S. N. Silva, F. Vernilli, S. M. Justus, O. R. Marques, A. Mazine, J. B. Baldo, E. Longo, and J. A. Varela, "Wear Mechanism for Blast Furnace Hearth Refractory Lining," Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 32, pp. 459-467, 2005.  R. McNally, F. Roulet, D. 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Bejan, Convection in Porous Media: Springer Verlag, N. Y., 1999.||摘要:||
為降低生產成本，高爐(blast furnace)延壽乃是現代鋼廠所追求目標之一。眾所周知爐床侵蝕(hearth erosion)防治甚為關鍵，而爐床內鐵水流動(liquid iron flow) 行為對於侵蝕程度實扮演關鍵性因素。有鑑於此，研究了解爐床內之流力與熱傳將有助於判斷侵蝕的區域並及早因應。本研究主旨在建立一套數值模擬程序來解析高爐爐下部流力與溫度場，並據此探討不同爐蕊(dead mam)孔隙度分佈與冷卻系統效率等操作變因之影響。
由於整體高爐尺度過於龐大，故本研究主要著重於鼓風區(tuyere)以下部分，計算範圍包含爐床、爐磚、鐵水以及多孔性之爐蕊區。本模式主要以計算流體力學(computational fluid dynamics)為架構求解爐下部三維紊流Navier-Stokes方程式以及共軛熱傳並輔以Ergun方程式描述鐵水於爐蕊區之流動行為。
(1) 從爐床內鐵水流動行為來說，本文使用層流與紊流模式計算所得結果非常類似，此由爐床溫度分析顯示，層流模式與紊流模式計算之溫度差異值最高約3%，而加入自然對流效應後，層流、標準k-ε與RNG k-ε模式在爐床底的熱通量分別減少28%，27%與24%，這些表示熱浮力效應對於爐床內鐵水熱傳的影響大於紊流模式。
In order to reduce the cost for iron making, prolonging the campaign life of a blast furnace has been pursued all the time. It is well known that the preventing the erosion of the hearth is crucial. The behavior of hot metal flow in the hearth has been considered as one of the key factors for determining hearth erosion in a blast furnace. To provide a useful insight into the hearth of a blast furnace, in this thesis a numerical model has been developed to analyze the flow and heat transfer under various porosity distribution within the deadman as well as cooling efficiency.
Based on BF 5 of BHP, Australian, and BF 2 of Chinese Steel Co., Taiwan, respectively, three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes equations with conjugate heat transfer and Ergun equation was solved by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for hot metal flow through the dead man with porous coke below the tuyere level in a blast furnace hearth during tapping process. The computational domain includes the refractories, hearth, deadman, and hot metal liquid in the blast furnace.
According to the theoretical model and numerical method mentioned above, this dissertation investigated three topics of the sensitivity of turbulence and natural convection in the hearth, the effect of the non-uniform porosity distribution on the hot liquid metal flow and heat transfer, and the efficiency of the different cooling stave as well as the influence on heat flux of the hearth wall under different temperature of cooling water for BF 2 of CSC.
As shown in the results, the key conclusions of this study are found as follows:
(1) Comparing laminar flow and turbulent flow models, the temperature deviation is about 3% in the hearth, but as the natural convection is applied in the mathematical model, the heat flux through the hearth bottom were decreased by 28%, 27% and 24%, for laminar flow, stand k-ε turbulent flow, and RNG k-ε turbulent flow, respectively, so it is suggested that the effect of natural convection is more sensitive than fluid flow behavior to simulate momentum and heat transfer in the blast furnace hearth.
(2) While the increment of the refractory temperature has been detected, it implies the hot metal flow getting stronger increasing the erosion of the hearth potentially.
(3) If the dead zone area was enlarged, the peripheral flow will be intensified in the hearth corner, and the heat flux at the central of hearth bottom will decease, which is a remarkable threat of hearth erosion.
(4) The circulatory flow of hot liquid metal is enhanced as the dead man becomes sitting with gutter coke-free space, increasing the temperature at the hearth corner, which suggests the existence of gutter coke-free space may cause elephant foot type erosion.
(5) In drainage of hot liquid metal, the heat flux of taphole significantly increase, therefore, it is needed to individually monitor the temperature of cooling water flowing through the copper staves, as well as to install thermocouples around the tapholes.
(6)The heat flux of the hearth is insensitive to the temperature of cooling water before the refractories are eroded, which implies that the performance of the water chiller may be limited in the beginning of the blast furnace campaign.
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