Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3681
標題: 高爐爐下部流力與熱流數值模擬
Numerical Simulation of Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Flow in the Blast Furnace Hearth
作者: 黃啟恩
Huang, Chi-En
關鍵字: Blast Furnace;高爐;Thermal Flow;Simulation;Deadman;Porosity;熱流;數值模擬;爐蕊;孔隙度
出版社: 化學工程學系所
引用: [1] "http://baike.baidu.com/view/131886.htm." [2] "http://www.thepotteries.org/shelton/blast_furnace.htm." [3] C. A. Klein and F. K. Fujihara, "Hearth Wear Control at CST''s No. 1 Blast Furnace Aiming 25 Years," presented at AISTech Proceedings, 2004. [4] A. Shinotake, "Liquid Flow Analysis in Blast Furnace Hearth Considering Taphole Location," presented at McMaster Symposium on Iron and Steelmaking, 2001. [5] F. Yoshikawa and J. Szekely, "Mechanism of Blast Furnace Hearth Erosion," Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 8, pp. 159-168, 1981. [6] S. Fujihara, S. Tamura, M. Ikeda, and M. Nakai, "High-Duty Carbon Blocks," Nippon Steel Tech. Rep pp. 1-6, 1989. [7] S. N. Silva, F. Vernilli, S. M. Justus, O. R. Marques, A. Mazine, J. B. Baldo, E. Longo, and J. A. Varela, "Wear Mechanism for Blast Furnace Hearth Refractory Lining," Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 32, pp. 459-467, 2005. [8] R. McNally, F. Roulet, D. Kuster, J. Schoennahl, and D. Lucke, "Advances & Advantages with Ceramic Cup Technology," presented at ALAFAR, Mexico, 2000. [9] J. Szekely and K. Nakanishi, "Stirring and its Effects on Aluminum Deoxidation in the ASEA-SKF Furnace: Part II. Mathematical Representation of the Turbulent Flow Field and of Tracer Dispersion," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, vol. 6B, pp. 245-256, 1975. [10] J. Szekely, J. J. Wang, and K. M. Kiser, "Flow Pattern Velocity and Turbulence Energy Measurements and Predictions in a Water Model of an Argon-Stirred Ladle " Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, vol. 7B, pp. 287-295, 1976. [11] J. Szekely and W. Chang, "Turbulent Electromagnetically Driven Flow in Metals Processing. Pt. 1. Formulation," Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 4, pp. 190-195, 1977. [12] A. Preuer, J. Winter, and H. Hiebler, "Computation of the Iron Flow in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace," Steel research, vol. 63, pp. 139-146, 1992. [13] S. K. Dash, D. N. Jha, S. K. Ajmani, and A. Upadhyaya, "Optimisation of Taphole Angle to Minimise Flow Induced Wall Shear Stress on the Hearth," Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 31, pp. 207-215, 2004. [14] V. Panjkovic, J. S. Truelove, and P. Zulli, "Numerical Modelling of Iron Flow and Heat Transfer in Blast Furnace Hearth," Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 29, pp. 390-400, 2002. [15] C. Q. Zhou, F. Y. Kumar, A. Patnala, and D. Roldan, "Numerical Investigation of Parametric Effects on a Blast Furnace Hearth," presented at AISTech 2004 Proceedings, 2004. [16] "http://www.key-to-steel.com/Articles/Art159.htm." [17] K. Shibata, Y. Kimura, M. Shimizu, and S. Inaba, "Dynamics of Dead-man Coke and Hot Metal Flow in a Blast Furnace Hearth," ISIJ International, vol. 30, pp. 208-216, 1990. [18] G. Leprince, J. M. Steiler, and D. Sert, "Blast Furnace Hearth Life Models for Assessing the Wear and Understanding the Transient Thermal States," presented at Ironmaking Conference Proceedings, 1993. [19] K. Kurita and A. Ogawa, "A Study of Wear Profile of Blast Furnace Hearth Affected by Fluid Flow and Hear Transfer," presented at The First International Congress of Science and Technology of Ironmaking, Sendai, 1994. [20] K. Takatani, T. Inada, and K. Takata, "Mathematical Model for Transient Erosion Process of Blast Furnace Hearth," ISIJ International, vol. 41, pp. 1139-1145, 2001. [21] R. Nicolle, J. M. Steiler, M. Helleisen, M. J. Venturini, M. Jusseau, M. V. Crayelinghe, B. Metz, and P. Duperray, "The Internal State of the Blast Furnace Hearth," presented at The Sixth International Iron and Steel Congress, Nagoya, 1990. [22] K. H. Peters, H. W. Gudenau, and G. Still, "Hot Metal Flow in a Blast Furnace Hearth - Model Tests," Steel research, vol. 56, pp. 547-552, 1985. [23] W. Kowalski, "State of the Art for Prolonging Blast Furnace Campaigns," La Revue Metallurrgie-CIT, pp. 493-505, 2000. [24] T. Nouchi, A. B. Yu, and K. Takeda, "A Numerical Investigation of the Coke Movement in Blast Furnace Hearth," presented at Proc. 9th APCChE (joint with Chemeca 2002), Sept, Auckland, New Zealand, 2002. [25] K. Shibata, "Control of Hot Metal Flow in Blast Furnace Hearth," R&D Kobe Steel Engineering Report 4, 1991. [26] A. Shinotake, H. Nakamura, N. Yadoumaru, Y. Morizane, and M. Meguro, "Bottom Shape of Blast Furnace Deadman and its Floating/Sinking Behavior by 3-dimentional Model Experiment," Tetsu-to-Hagane, vol. 89, pp. 77-84, 2003. [27] Y. K. Suh, Y. J. Lee, and C. Y. Baik, "A Study on the Flow of Molten Iron in the Hearth of Blast Furnace," presented at Ironmaking Conference proceedings, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 1996. [28] M. Shimizu, "Control of Gas and Liquid Flow in Blast Furnace Based on Dead-Man Coke Dynamics," presented at The Sixth International Iron and Steel Congress, Nagoya, Japan, 1990. [29] N. Tsuchiya, T. Fukutake, Y. Tamauchi, and T. Matsumoto, "In-furnace Conditions as Prerequisites for Proper Use and Design of Mud to Control Blast Furnace Taphole Length," ISIJ International, vol. 38, pp. 116-125, 1998. [30] S. K. Dash, S. K. Ajmani, A. Kumar, and H. S. Sandhu, "Optimum Taphole Length and Flow Induced Stresses," Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 28, pp. 110-116, 2001. [31] A. K. Vats and S. K. Dash, "Flow Induced Stress Distribution on Wall of Blast Furnace Hearth," Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 27, pp. 123-128, 2000. [32] S. K. Dash, S. K. Ajmani, A. Kumar, and H. S. Sandhu, "Optimisation of Tap Hole Length of ''D'' Blast Furnace Using Mathematical Modelling," Tata Search, pp. 144-150, 2001. [33] B. Desai, R. V. Ramna, and S. K. Dash, "Optimum Coke-free Space Volume in Blast Furnace Hearth by Wall Shear Stress Analysis," ISIJ International, vol. 46, pp. 1396-1402, 2006. [34] K. Nishioka, T. Maeda, and M. Shimizu, "Effects of Various In-furnace Conditions on Blast Furnace Hearth Drainage," ISIJ International, vol. 45, pp. 1496-1505, 2005. [35] T. Nouchi, M. Sato, K. Takeda, and T. Ariyama, "Effects of Operation Condition and Casting Strategy on Drainage Efficiency of the Blast Furnace Hearth," ISIJ International, vol. 45, pp. 1515-1520, 2005. [36] J. Janz, D. Lucke, I. Carmichael, N. Mousel, and H. Hille, "Installation of Copper Staves in Blast Furnace Hearths and Their Influence on Refractory Design," AISE Steel Technology, pp. 42-51, 2003. [37] Y. Tomita and K. Tanaka, "Development of the 3-Dimensional Numerical Model to Estimate Hot Metal Flow and Heat Transfer Behavior at the Blast Furnace Hearth," presented at The First International Congress of Science and Technology of Ironmaking, Sendai, 1994. [38] J. R. Post, T. Peeters, Y. Yang, and M. A. Reuter, "Hot Metal Flow in the Blast Furnace Hearth: Thermal and Carbon Dissolution effects on Buoyancy, Flow and Refractory Wear," presented at Third International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries CSIRO, 2003. [39] J. h. Lee and J. k. Chung, "Effect of Packed Bed State on the Liquid Flow in Blast Furnace Hearth," presented at 2nd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Sweden, 2004. [40] F. Yan and C. Q. Zhou, "3-D Computation Modeling of a Blast Furnace Hearth," presented at AISTech 2004 Proceedings, 2004. [41] D. Roldan, Y. Zhang, R. Deshpande, C. Q. Zhou, D. F. Huang, and P. Chaubal, "Three-dimensional CFD Analysis for Blast Furnace Hearth Wear," Iron & Steel Technology, pp. 43-50, 2007. [42] Y. Zhang, R. Deshpande, D. Huang, P. Chaubal, and C. Q. Zhou, "A Methodology for Blast Furnace Hearth Inner Profile Analysis," Journal of Heat Transfer, vol. 129, pp. 1729-1731, 2007. [43] Y. Zhang, R. Deshpande, D. F. Huang, P. Chaubal, and C. Q. Zhou, "Numerical Analysis of Blast Furnace Hearth Inner Profile by using CFD and Heat Transfer Model for Different Time Periods," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 51, pp. 186-197, 2008. [44] D. Maldonado, P. Zulli, B. Y. Guo, and A. B. Yu, "Mathematical Modelling of Flows and Temperature Distributions in the Blast Furnace Hearth," presented at Fifth International Conference on CFD in the Process Industries, Melbourne, Australia, 2006. [45] A. Preuer, J. Winter, and H. Hiebler, "Computation of the Erosion in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace," Steel research, vol. 63, pp. 147-151, 1992. [46] P. K. Iwamasa, G. A. Caffery, W. D. Warnice, and S. R. Alias, "Modelling of Iron Flow, Heat Transfer, and Refractory Wear in the Hearth of an Iron Blast Furnace," presented at Inter Conf on CFD in Mineral & Metal Processing and Power Generation 1997. [47] G. A. Kudinov, V. A. Krishtal, and E. E. Lysenko, "Computer Diagnosis of Erosion of the Refractory Brickwork of the Hearth and Bottom of Blast Furnaces," Steel in Translation, vol. 27, pp. 11-14, 1997. [48] A. Shinotake, H. Nakamura, N. Yadoumaru, Y. Morizane, and M. Meguro, "Investigation of Blast-furnace Hearth Sidewall Erosion by Core Sample Analysis and Consideration of Campaign Operation," ISIJ International, vol. 43, pp. 321-330, 2003. [49] V. Panjkovic and J. Truelove, "Computational Fluid Dynamic Modelling of Iron Flow and Heat Transfer in the Iron Blast Furnace Hearth," presented at Second International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 1999. [50] R. J. Nightingale, F. W. B. U. Tanzil, A. J. G. Beck, and K. Price, "Blast Furnace Hearth Condition Monitoring and Taphole Management Techniques," La Revue Métallurrgie-CIT, pp. 533-540, 2001. [51] B. Wright, P. Zulli, F. Bierbrauer, and V. Panjkovic, "Assessment of Refractory Condition in a Blast Furnace Hearth using Computational Fluid Dynamics," presented at Third International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries, Melbourne, Australia, 2003. [52] F. Yan, C. Q. Zhou, D. F. Huang, P. Chaubal, and Y. Zhao, "Three-Dimensional Computational Modeling of a Blast Furnace Hearth," Iron & Steel Technology, vol. 2, pp. 48-57, 2005. [53] J. Torrkulla and H. Saxen, "Model of the State of the Blast Furnace Hearth," ISIJ International, vol. 40, pp. 438-447, 2000. [54] H. K. Versteeg and W. Malalasekera, An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: The Finite Volume Method: Wiley, New York, 1995. [55] H. Tennekes and J. L. Lumley, A First Course in Turbulence: Cambridge, Mass. :MIT Press, 1972. [56] T. H. Shih and J. L. Lumley, "Kolmogorov Behavior of Near-Wall Turbulence and its Application in Turbulence Modeling," International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, vol. 1, pp. 43 - 56, 1993. [57] 徐明君, "應用大尺度渦流法計算載具顆粒紊流場," 博士論文, 國立成功大學, 2003. [58] FLUENT 6.2 User’s Guide, FLUENT Inc., Lebanon, NH, 2005. [59] J. O. Hinze, Turbulence: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New York, 1975. [60] B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding, Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence. London, England: Academic Press, 1972. [61] V. Takhot and S. A. Orzag, "Renormalization Group Analysis of Turbulence: Basic Theory," J. Scient. Comput., vol. 1, pp. 3-11, 1986. [62] H. Darcy, Les Fontains Publiques de la Ville de Dijon: Victor Dalmont, Paris, 1856. [63] P. Forchheimer, "Wasserbewegung Durch Boden," Z. Ver. Deutsch. Ing, vol. 45, pp. 1782-1788, 1901. [64] S. Ergun, "Fluid Flow Through Pakced Columns," Chemical Engineering Progress, vol. 48, pp. 89-94, 1952. [65] R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena: Wiley, New York, 1976. [66] S. V. Patanker and D. B. Spalding, "A Calculation Procedure for Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer in Three-Dimensional Parabolic Flows," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 15, pp. 1787-1806, 1972. [67] J. P. V. Doormal and G. G. Raithby, "Enhancement of the SIMPLE Method for Predicting Incompressible Fluid Flows," Numerical Heat Transfer, vol. 7, pp. 147-163, 1984. [68] 莊崇文, "具三圓柱矩形盒之熱質自然對流現象," 碩士論文, 私立元智大學, 2003. [69] M. Ichida, Nishihara, K. Tamura, M. Sugata, and H. Ono, "Influence of Ore/Coke Distribution on Descending and Melting Behavior of Burden in Blast Furnace," ISIJ International, vol. 31, pp. 505-514, 1991. [70] M. Ichida, K. Nishihara, K. Tamura, and M. Sugata, "Influence of Inner Wall Profile on Descending and Melting Behavior of Burden in Blast Furnace," ISIJ International, vol. 31, pp. 515-523, 1991. [71] N. Standish and P. J. Campbell, "Analysis of Liquid Flow in Blast Furnace Hearths," Transactions ISIJ, vol. 24, pp. 709-717, 1984. [72] M. J. Luomala, O. J. Mattila, and J. J. Harkki, "Physical Modelling of Hot Metal Flow in a Blast Furnace Hearth," Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy, vol. 30, pp. 225-231, 2001. [73] A. Chen, E. Elsaadawy, and W.-K. Lu, "Physical Modelling of Flows in the Blast Furnace Hearth," presented at AISTech, 2005. [74] K. Nishioka, T. Maeda, and M. Shimizu, "A Three-Dimensional Mathematical Modelling of Drainage Behavior in Blast Furnace Hearth," ISIJ International, vol. 45, pp. 669-676, 2005. [75] C. Q. Zhou, F. Yan, D. Roldan, D. F. Huang, P. Chaubal, and Y. Zhao, "Evaluation of Internal Conditions in a Blast Furnace Hearth Using a 3-D CFD Model," presented at AISTech 2005 Proceedings, 2005. [76] T. Nouchi, K. Takeda, Y. Sawa, and S. Watakabe, "Role of Hearth Packing Configuration for Long Furnace Life and Stable Operation at High Productivity and Low Coke Rate," presented at International BF Lower Zone Symposium, Wollongong, 2002. [77] A. Parihar and S. Moeykens, "Flow Through Porous Media," Fluent Tutorial Guide 2006. [78] A. D. Nield and A. Bejan, Convection in Porous Media: Springer Verlag, N. Y., 1999.
摘要: 
為降低生產成本,高爐(blast furnace)延壽乃是現代鋼廠所追求目標之一。眾所周知爐床侵蝕(hearth erosion)防治甚為關鍵,而爐床內鐵水流動(liquid iron flow) 行為對於侵蝕程度實扮演關鍵性因素。有鑑於此,研究了解爐床內之流力與熱傳將有助於判斷侵蝕的區域並及早因應。本研究主旨在建立一套數值模擬程序來解析高爐爐下部流力與溫度場,並據此探討不同爐蕊(dead mam)孔隙度分佈與冷卻系統效率等操作變因之影響。
由於整體高爐尺度過於龐大,故本研究主要著重於鼓風區(tuyere)以下部分,計算範圍包含爐床、爐磚、鐵水以及多孔性之爐蕊區。本模式主要以計算流體力學(computational fluid dynamics)為架構求解爐下部三維紊流Navier-Stokes方程式以及共軛熱傳並輔以Ergun方程式描述鐵水於爐蕊區之流動行為。
本文先以澳洲BHP鋼廠之操作數據,探討紊流模式與自然對流之重要性且驗證本文的計算流體力學模式,接著以中鋼二號高爐為架構,分析不同爐蕊孔隙度之分佈狀況的鐵水流動與熱傳現象,最後,同樣以中鋼二號高爐為物理模型,解析不同保護元件在不同冰水溫度下之冷卻效率及計算爐床內壁面熱通量。
根據以上數值模擬高爐爐下部流力與熱傳結果,本研究獲得重要成果可歸納如下:
第一部份 紊流與熱浮力之影響
(1) 從爐床內鐵水流動行為來說,本文使用層流與紊流模式計算所得結果非常類似,此由爐床溫度分析顯示,層流模式與紊流模式計算之溫度差異值最高約3%,而加入自然對流效應後,層流、標準k-ε與RNG k-ε模式在爐床底的熱通量分別減少28%,27%與24%,這些表示熱浮力效應對於爐床內鐵水熱傳的影響大於紊流模式。
(2) 就爐床內溫度隨高度變化趨勢而言,加入自然對流模式的確出現溫度分層現象,但爐床底與鐵水進口端溫差值高達500oC,且出鐵口高度下循環流動行為與文獻水模實驗結果不符,此一結果可能來自於鐵水熱傳導係數過低,造成熱傳導的效果不佳所致。

第二部份 爐蕊孔隙度分佈對爐下部流力與熱傳之影響
(1) 偵測爐磚溫度攀升的情況便有可能是附近鐵水流動較為活絡,表示此區遭受侵蝕可能性大增。
(2) 若中心焦柱半徑增大,將使得爐床角落週邊流增強力與高溫,導致爐床中央熱流應會減少,但周邊熱流可能會增強,此現象將威脅爐磚之壽命。
(3) 由計算結果顯示,爐床高溫區偏向東方出鐵口時表示爐床內西邊出鐵口附近爐蕊透液性較差。
(4) 當爐蕊內孔隙度分佈為東北低西南高,此時爐磚溫度計算值與高爐操作初期所量測之溫度變化趨勢類似,顯示此時期二號高爐爐床內爐蕊孔隙度分佈可能呈現東北低西南高狀態。
(5) 交換出鐵口出鐵時,孔隙度低(透液性差)的區域附近爐磚溫差變動較為明顯,反之當爐蕊透液性佳則溫度變動受交換出鐵口出鐵影響小。

第三部份 高爐爐下部冷卻效率分析
(1) 高爐爐蕊若為半棲座狀態,將迫使鐵水走往環狀通道,造成環狀通道內鐵水流速增加及爐床角落溫度上升,此現象可能導致最不希望發生之象腳侵蝕結果。
(2) 出鐵期間,出鐵口附近之熱流增大,雖安裝高熱導之冷卻板可移走劇增熱流,但依然有必要安裝溫度監控設備於冷卻設備以求安全。
(3) 計算結果顯示,在高爐操作初期由於內襯完好未磨損,爐內溫度分佈受冷卻水溫改變影響較小,因此在高爐初期使用降低水溫造成的效果可能是有限的。

In order to reduce the cost for iron making, prolonging the campaign life of a blast furnace has been pursued all the time. It is well known that the preventing the erosion of the hearth is crucial. The behavior of hot metal flow in the hearth has been considered as one of the key factors for determining hearth erosion in a blast furnace. To provide a useful insight into the hearth of a blast furnace, in this thesis a numerical model has been developed to analyze the flow and heat transfer under various porosity distribution within the deadman as well as cooling efficiency.
Based on BF 5 of BHP, Australian, and BF 2 of Chinese Steel Co., Taiwan, respectively, three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes equations with conjugate heat transfer and Ergun equation was solved by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for hot metal flow through the dead man with porous coke below the tuyere level in a blast furnace hearth during tapping process. The computational domain includes the refractories, hearth, deadman, and hot metal liquid in the blast furnace.
According to the theoretical model and numerical method mentioned above, this dissertation investigated three topics of the sensitivity of turbulence and natural convection in the hearth, the effect of the non-uniform porosity distribution on the hot liquid metal flow and heat transfer, and the efficiency of the different cooling stave as well as the influence on heat flux of the hearth wall under different temperature of cooling water for BF 2 of CSC.
As shown in the results, the key conclusions of this study are found as follows:
(1) Comparing laminar flow and turbulent flow models, the temperature deviation is about 3% in the hearth, but as the natural convection is applied in the mathematical model, the heat flux through the hearth bottom were decreased by 28%, 27% and 24%, for laminar flow, stand k-ε turbulent flow, and RNG k-ε turbulent flow, respectively, so it is suggested that the effect of natural convection is more sensitive than fluid flow behavior to simulate momentum and heat transfer in the blast furnace hearth.
(2) While the increment of the refractory temperature has been detected, it implies the hot metal flow getting stronger increasing the erosion of the hearth potentially.
(3) If the dead zone area was enlarged, the peripheral flow will be intensified in the hearth corner, and the heat flux at the central of hearth bottom will decease, which is a remarkable threat of hearth erosion.
(4) The circulatory flow of hot liquid metal is enhanced as the dead man becomes sitting with gutter coke-free space, increasing the temperature at the hearth corner, which suggests the existence of gutter coke-free space may cause elephant foot type erosion.
(5) In drainage of hot liquid metal, the heat flux of taphole significantly increase, therefore, it is needed to individually monitor the temperature of cooling water flowing through the copper staves, as well as to install thermocouples around the tapholes.
(6)The heat flux of the hearth is insensitive to the temperature of cooling water before the refractories are eroded, which implies that the performance of the water chiller may be limited in the beginning of the blast furnace campaign.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3681
其他識別: U0005-1408200802120300
Appears in Collections:化學工程學系所

Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.