Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36878
標題: 有機栽培與加工調製對山葡萄生育與製茶品質之影響
Effects of organic cultivation and conditions of processing on growth and the tea quality of wild grapes
作者: 李明翰
Li, Ming-Han
關鍵字: wild grape;細本山葡萄;resveratrol;organic cultivation;sensory evaluation;白藜蘆醇;有機栽培;官能品評
出版社: 農藝學系所
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摘要: 
本研究自2006 年至2008 年,於中興大學農業試驗場(台中霧峰),利用細本山葡萄VT-27(Vitis. thunbergii)收集品系,進行扦插繁殖試驗。並以扦插成活苗進行有機栽培管理,分別探討有機肥施用量(0、5000、10000 公斤/公頃)與種植密度(2×1、2×1.5、2×2 公尺)對山葡萄植株地上部與地下根產量及其有效成分含量之影響。此外,為提高山葡萄收穫後地上部莖葉之利用價值,委託農委會茶葉改良場魚池分場,以茶葉製作方式,進行萎凋、炒菁及烘培加工處理,探討提高山葡萄茶風味與保留有效成分之最適加工條件,以開發健康安全且具市場接受度之山葡萄茶包。

研究結果顯示,枝條成熟度對扦插育苗成活率在夏季明顯呈現差異,嫩稍枝條(一月齡)成活率達64.7%最高,青綠枝條(三月齡)僅有38.7%最低;秋季嫩梢及青綠(三月齡)枝條均較成熟枝條具有較高成活率,分別達72.7%與63.3%。此外,育苗介質對扦插成活率,以泥碳土混合蛭石與真珠石在2:1:1(體積)的比例條件下,秋季明顯較其他介質具有較佳成活率(68.9%),並且影響不同水分溼度及季節間溫度下的植株成活表現。未來若考慮以扦插繁殖育苗時,可利用此介質比例,並選擇嫩稍或青綠枝條,配合秋季每日灑水兩次(上、下午各一次)管理條件,將有利於扦插育苗成活率提高至七成。

田間種植密度與有機肥施用量在裂區三重複設計下,因主區機差較大緣故,使得主區肥料處理相較副區種植密度,在本試驗對於產量和有效成分含量的影響,大都未呈現顯著效應關係。如生產策略考量獲取較多地上部枝葉產量,或萃取較多枝葉白藜蘆醇苷與根部白藜蘆醇有效成分含量時,適度密植(2×1、2×1.5)有助提高收穫效益;但並不適合作為以根莖產量為收穫目標之用。其中,主莖與根系在2×2公尺較寬行株距種植下,每公頃最佳產量,分別可獲得125 和111 公斤。

綜合山葡萄茶官能品評項目,包括外觀色澤、茶湯顏色、青草味、梅酸味、酸味及甘甜味。山葡萄茶最佳加工調製條件為前處理萎凋24 小時後,配合90℃烘培6~8 小時,能夠獲得較佳風味品質。並且保留山葡萄茶含有較多的有效成分含量。此外,山葡萄茶加工調製過程,若不考量烘培對提升香氣與滋味,隨著萎凋時間延長至48 小時,山葡萄茶白藜蘆醇含量相較傳統日曬萎凋處理為高。

綜合實驗結果, 顯示適度有機栽培條件與加工處理,有助提高細本山葡萄產量及有效成份,並增進山葡萄枝葉利用價值,可以作為新開發保健飲品之用。

Field experiments were conducted from 2007 to 2008 at the Agriculture Experimental Station ( AES;Wufeng, Taichung ) of National Chung Hsing University (NCHU) in Taiwan, to investigate effects of organic cultivation and
planting density on growth and effective component contents of wild grapes. Three different amounts (0, 5000, and 10000 kg/ha) of organic fertilizer treatments, and
three planting densities (2×1, 2×1.5,and 2×2 meter) were conducted in split-plot design with three replications. Experiments on cutting propagation were carried out during the summer and fall seasons of 2006 to assess the survival rates of wild grapes affected by treatments of culture medium, shoot maturities, and moisture spray frequencies.

In addition, tea processing experiments were conducted from the fall of 2007 through the spring of 2008 to investigate effects of different withering and drying
conditions on qualities and effective component contents of wild grape tea at Yuchih Branch of Taiwan Tea Experimental Station (TRES ; Yuchih, Nantou). The
treatments included four levels of withering ( indoor withering 0, 24, and 48 hours, and outdoor sunlight withering 50 hours), three drying temperatures ( 80℃, 100℃, and 120℃), and three drying times( 0、6 and 12 hours) in factorial experiments were conducted to investigate their effects on qualities and effective component contents of wild grapes tea. Panel sensory evaluation were then conducted to find out optimum withering and drying conditions for improving the quality of wild grapes tea by manufacturing process.

Results of experiment in the summer season (2006/7/19 ~ 8/22) showed that shoot maturity presented significant differences on the survival rates of the cutting propagations. A much higher survival rate (64.7%) was reached by the young shoot (one month old), while that of green shoot (three month old) was only 38.7%. The survival rate of cutting in autumn season (2006/10/10~11/13) reached 72.7% and 63.3% by young shoot and green shoot, respectively. Cultivation medium were made by peat moss, vermiculite, and pearlite in a ratio of 2: 1: 1 (volume) showed the highest survival rate of 68.9% in the fall season, significantly higher than the other proportioned medium.

Field experimental results in 2007 and 2008 showed that planting density affected yield and effective component contents of wild grapes. If the higher branches yield or more piceid and resveratrol extracted from branches and root, increasing planting density will be required. The optimum density of 2×1 or 2×1.5 meters is suggested for the highest harvest yield and effective component contents. The best output performance of main stem and root was obtained under 2×2 meter spacing, the harvests reached 125 and 111 kg/ha, respectively.

Sensory evaluation for integrated appearance, color, sourness, sweetness, grassy smell and plum taste, and overall flavors of wild grape tea are conducted.
Experimental results showed that 24 hours wilting gave the best appearance of tea leaves and best color of tea soup. Drying controlled at 90℃ for 6 to 12 hours reduced the sour taste, and brought out better plum taste, thus gave the best tea quality. In this condition of processing also retained the highest effective component contents (resveratrol and piceid) in tea soup of wild grapes.

According to the experiment results, we suggest that organic cultivation and suitable processing, are helpful to enhance the outputs and effective component contents of wild grape, and thus promotes the value of the branch and leave of wild grapes. It is worth to develop a new healthy drink.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36878
其他識別: U0005-0202200913502200
Appears in Collections:農藝學系

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