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Production and Quality Evaluation in Echinacea spp. Grown in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||Echinacea;紫錐菊;caffeic acid derivatives;total phenolic compounds;alkamide;yield;咖啡酸衍生物;總酚類化合物;烷醯胺;產量||出版社:||農藝學系||摘要:||
紫錐菊為菊科紫錐菊屬多年生草本植物，原產於北美中西部大草原的傳統藥用植物，由於紫錐菊具有增強及刺激人體免疫系統，對發燒、感冒、上呼吸道感染具有療效，目前為全球普及、需求快速發展的新興藥用保健植物。由於需求量激增，野生採集已不符市場需求，必須透過人為栽培提供穩定品質的藥材做為產品加工之用。引種需要進行選種，而且要針對其農藝性狀進行選拔，達到高產的目的。本試驗以E. purpurea、E. paradoxa、E. purpurea cv. Magnus和E. purpurea cv. White Swan為試驗材料，調查植株農藝性狀如株高、抽苔日數、分株數和各部位乾物質產量等農藝性狀。另外針對各種/品種之花、葉及根等三部位進行取樣，分析其中caftaric acid、chlorogenic acid、cynarin、echinacoside、cichoric acid等咖啡酸衍生物含量、總酚類化合物含量與烷醯胺8/9的含量。此外以E. purpurea為材料，進行不同年期的栽培比較試驗，比較各採收期間株高、花數和地上部乾物質產量等農藝性狀，並分析各採收期間葉片和花器等不同部位之成分含量差異，藉以評估紫錐菊在台灣栽培之可行性，作為往後紫錐菊開發利用的基礎。
由紫錐菊不同種/品種的農藝性狀及乾物質產量的比較顯示，以E. purpurea整體的農藝性狀表現最佳，植株可得到最大的乾物產量，但根部產量則以E. paradoxa較佳，E. purpurea、E. purpurea cv. Magnus和E. purpurea cv. White Swan葉片、花器和根部的咖啡酸衍生物以cichoric acid含量最多，caftaric acid次之。E. paradoxa葉片、花器和根部的echinacoside及alkamide 8/9含量較E. purpurea的種/品種高。各品種花所含的咖啡酸衍生物含量、總酚類化合物含量及烷醯胺8/9含量較葉及根高，但E. purpurea cv. White Swan的根部具有最多量的烷醯胺8/9。
不同採收期的產量比較試驗，春、夏季植株生長較為旺盛，因此乾物質產量較秋、冬季高，第二次採收的產量較第一、三次採收期高。不同採收期的花和葉片的咖啡酸衍生物中，以cichoric acid含量最多，caftaric acid次之。另外秋、冬季採收的葉片所含的咖啡酸衍生物及總酚類化合物含量較春、夏季生長的葉片高。以植株部位而言，花器的咖啡酸衍生物含量及總酚類化合物含量較葉片高。
Echinaeca, also known as the purple coneflower, is a traditional North American perenial medicinal herb that has gained popularity in recent years through claims that it beneficially stimulates the human immune system. The increasing popularity of Echinacea products has led to the expansion of wildcrafting and commercial cultivation to meet the growing demand for plant material. Collection of wild plant, however, does not provide the uniform plant material necessary for standardized drugs and over-harvest of plants can destroy wild population. Thus, programs for developing purple coneflower for cultivation should be initiated. Introduction of a species into cultivation requires screening plant materials suitable for local environment and an understanding of agronomic characteristics that lead to high yields. Therefore, as part of the cultivar breeding program for Echinacea purpurea at the Department of Agronomy in Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, efforts were made to determine the best species suitable for Taiwan cultivation and time for plant harvest to ensure high yields and high concentration of active constituents.
In species/cultivars screening test, Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea paradoxa, Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus, and Echinacea purpurea cv. White Swan were introduce to evaluate their growth potential and phytochemical level in different plant parts. Samples (10 plants or more) were collected for determination of plant height, shoots number per plant, flowering heads per plant, flower dry weight, stems dry weight, leaves dry weight, rhizomes dry weight, root dry weight, aerial parts yield, and ground parts yield. HPLC method was used for analysis of various phenolic compounds and alkamide 8/9 in Echinacea species. The results were analyzed for statistically significant difference by the procedures of SAS/GLM. Screening data show that plant performances and total plant production in E. purpurea was significantly greater than the others, but roots yield in E. paradoxa was highest among them. In E. purpurea, E. purpurea cv. Magnus, and E. purpurea cv. White Swan, cichoric acid was the main phenolic compounds in roots, leaves, and flowers, but echinacoside and alkamide 8/9 were the major phytochemicals in E. paradoxa roots, leaves, and flowers. Caftaric acid was the other main phenolic compound in E. purpurea, E. purpurea cv. Magnus, and E. purpurea cv. White Swan roots and tops. Flowers contained the most total caffeic acid derivatives, total phenolics and alkamide 8/9 of all the sampled tissues, except in E. purpurea cv. White Swan roots.
The yield and content of active compounds in Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. were studied to define the best harvest time. Plant roots, stems, leaves, and flowers were collected from three growing season at seed-filling stage in perennial cultivation. Plant performances and yields were highest for the 1-year old plants harvested at summer season followed by the 0.5-year and 1.5-year old plants harvested at winter season. However, concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves and flowers were higher for winter harvested plants than summer harvested plants. In 0.5-year and 1.5-year old plants harvested at winter season, flowers contained the most total caffeic acid derivatives and total phenolics of all the sampled tissues, although leaf blades also contained relatively large concentrations. Cichoric acid was the major phenolic in E. purpurea leaves (mean 4.03% first growing season, 0.63% second growing season, 2.93% third growing season) and flowers (mean 9.49% first growing season, 8.59% second growing season, 9.48% third growing season). Caftaric acid was the other main phenolic compound in E. purpurea leaves (mean 2.06% first growing season, 0.67% second growing season, 1.59% third growing season) and flowers (mean 2.39% first growing season, 2.37% second growing season, 2.50% third growing season).
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