Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36981
標題: 野生稻Oryza nivara、O. officinalis、O. australiensis基因導入於育種上之利用
Study on the breeding behavior from Oryza nivara, O.fficinalis, O. australiensis introgression lines
作者: 李長沛
Li, Charng-Pei
關鍵字: Oryza nivara;野生稻;Oryza officinalis;Oryza australiensis;Adevinced backcross;Recombination Inbred lines;Introgression lines;Quantitative trait loci (QTLs);Simple sequence repeats (SSR);Oryza nivara;Oryza officinalis;Oryza australiensis;多次回交;重組自交系;導入系統;數量性狀基因座;簡單重複序列
出版社: 農藝學系所
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摘要: 
為擴大栽培稻遺傳變異,強化野生稻種原於育種上的利用價值,本試驗評估具有Oryza nivara (IRG. acc. 102165) 之褐飛蝨抗性的導入系統852T034再與台農71號雜交 (AA組合) 建立的199個F10的重組自交系 (recombinant inbred line, RIL),探討RILs產量及各農藝性狀之表現,並以157個SSR分子標誌進行篩選及進行QTL分析;另外,針對134個台農67號(TNG67)/O. officinalis (IRG. acc. 100896) (AC組合)之BC2F19及106個TNG67/O. australiensis (IRG. acc. 100882) (AE組合) 之BC3F18的多次回交導入系統進行產量及相關性狀評估,也分別篩選133個及96個SSR,以探討野生稻基因導入情形,並試著找出O. officinalis及O. australiensis兩野生稻種對產量增進的連鎖標誌。
外表性狀評估的結果,各組合在產量相關性狀的表現,有多數系統超越對照品種 (TNG67) 10%以上,但也有稔實率低於50% 的半不稔系統。在每株穗數、每穗粒數、千粒重均有超親分離之表現,AC組合有穗較輕、穗數偏多的表現,AE組合則偏向穗數少、每穗粒數多的表現。在其他性狀上,AE組合有生育期晚、株高略高、葉片較為細長、葉綠素含量 (SPAD值) 較高及葉片老化較慢的表現。在病蟲害的表現上,AA、AC有較多的抗褐飛蝨系統,AC、AE則有較多的抗稻熱病系統。
分子標誌篩選之結果,AA、AC、AE達同質結合的系統數分別有56 (28%)、 106 (79%) 及104 (98%)。其中AC、AE系統中帶有O. offcinalis、O. australiensis基因型的比例平均分別為5.4%、 1%,但分別有13.1%、7.2%表現非親本型之異常基因型。AA組合的QTL分析結果,解釋率較高且與O. nivara有關的QTL有位於第1條染色體上的株高、穗長、每穗粒數、葉長、粒長及粒形,以及第4條染色體上的褐飛蝨抗性之QTLs。
探討三個組合中高產品系之產量與對照品種 (TNG67) 差異均不顯著。然而就各組合與對照品種TNG67比較的結果,在穗數、每穗粒數、稔實率及千粒重等產量相關性狀,其最高的增加幅度,AA組合分別為16%、47%、7%及36%;AC組合分別為25%、8%、25% 及13%;AE組合分別為13%、25%、27% 及19%,顯示各野生稻對各產量相關性狀具不同程度的增進效應,但各組合中並未發現單一系統中有2個以上的產量相關性狀同時超越對照品種。高產系統在分子層次的表現與低產者相比,在AC、AE組合有遺傳背景明顯偏向輪迴親本TNG67的表現,以混合分離篩選的結果AC、AE組合分別找到有5個與產量有關的分子標誌,而且屬於野生稻或異常基因型對各項產量相關性狀有不等程度的增進效應。
綜合本試驗之結果,確認O. nivara、O. officinalis以及O. australiensis等不同染色體組野生稻之基因已導入栽培稻中,除可繼續針對優良性狀進行基因定位外,也可做為分子標誌輔助選拔之材料,進而增進野生稻有利基因的利用效率。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36981
其他識別: U0005-2208201016054700
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