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Studies on the character variation and phyletic relationship among Coix lacryma-jobi L. in Taiwan based on RAPD markers
一、共收集國內外66個薏苡品種(系)進行農藝性狀調查，探討薏苡種原性狀變異及品種間親緣關係。經調查14個農藝性狀結果顯示薏苡品種(系)間農藝性狀有顯著差異存在。性狀相關性分析結果顯示每株中間穗數、每株葉數、稔實粒重等三個性狀與產量呈極顯著正相關。又利用主成分分析發現抽穗日數、收穫期、株高及最低穗位高等四個性狀是種原變異的最主要來源。經歸群分析後可分為三大類群，其中以包括對照品種在內的類群最大，Indonesia sumatra san則與其他品種關係最遠。
Coix lacryma-jobi L. is a popular crop in Taiwan. Owing to its function of curing many diseases, including cancer, allergy and other diseases, this crop is also titled as ‘the king of cereals'. Despite the identification of phenotypic characteristics through different varieties is simple and fast, little is known about the DNA markers level, such as RAPD analysis, in this crop. In this thesis, the main objectives were to study the agronomic characters, various chemical components analysis and relationships of 66 coix varieties (lines) from different countries through RAPD method.
To identify fourteen agronomic characters in 66 coix varieties (lines), we found grain yield revealed the significantly positive correlation with spikelet number, total leaf number and fertile seed weight. According to the PCA analysis, it revealed that the diversity of germplasm was caused by he traits of plant height, lowest spikelet, silking period and harvesting time. And there are three clusters had been classified using the cluster analysis. Among these three clusters, the variety of Indonesia sumatra san had the farthest distance with others.
The investigation of various chemical components from the dehulled grains of 66 varieties (lines) revealed the percentage of 1.7%, 7.4%, 13.9%, 0.16% and 27.7﹪in ash, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber and coixenolide respectively. The same investigation from the grains with hull appeared 6.7%, 3.9%, 8.9%, 0.29% in ash, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber each. We also discovered that the crude protein in dehulled grains showed the significantly positive correlation (r=0.586) with the crude fiber in the grains with hull. The similar result also appeared in the amount of coixenolide and crude protein in the grains with hull. Based on the typical correlation analysis, it showed that 100 grain weight, silking time, harvesting time, and grain width are the main agronomic traits to affect crude fiber in grains with hull and dehulled grains, however the traits mentioned above showed negative correlation with the color of the grains' hull. In this section, there were 3 groups which were classified through quality analysis and 22 agronomic traits analysis, and the group C was confirmed as the major sub-variety.
In the primary RAPD analysis in coix germplasm, we obtained 78 polymorphic bands from 258 bands in total with 41 valid primers (about 30% polymorphism ratio). And about 8-10 valid primers (with highly polymorphic ratio) were chosen from the former 41 ones for the subsequent RAPD analysis. Nevertheless, there are some genetic differences existed in the coix germplasm via the results of genetic distance. By using the mixed DNAs from different plants of same variety as the template, we deduced that above 80% of bands showed the representatives in often-cross-pollinated crops and the ability to distinguish between the sub-varieties of major and mayuen. And the result from the RAPD analysis is as similar as the cluster analysis of agronomic traits. Conclusion to the results showed above, the outcomes from RAPD analysis can close to the results from morphological differences, but not absolutely. The pattern III would be more efficient to identify the sub-variety of major and mayuen.
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