Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/37068
標題: 紅豆成熟期落葉性及其他農藝性狀之研究
Studies on Leaf Abscission at Maturity and Agronomic Characters in Adzuki Bean
作者: 周國隆
Chou, Kuo-Lung
關鍵字: Adzuki bean;紅豆;Leaf abscission;Germplasm;Leaf abscission genotype;F2 population;落葉性;種原;落葉型;F2族群
出版社: 農藝學系
摘要: 
本研究主要目的在探討紅豆落葉性及其他農藝性狀,在不同種原間、不同落葉型間及雜種F2族群間之變異,以供雜交親本的選定及育種選拔上的參考。其試驗結果摘述如下:
(一)紅豆種原成熟期落葉性及其他農藝性狀之變異
不同地區種原間有顯著的差異,以台灣國內的種原之成熟期落葉性變異潛能較廣,而中國大陸的種原較狹窄,其原因可能是各地區的育種目標不同。在332個種原中僅有7個種原在成熟期全部落葉,這些種原可供作改良落葉性之雜交親本。在變異係數方面,顯示成熟期落葉性有很廣的變異潛能。在遺傳率方面以植株高度及百粒重兩性狀之遺傳率較高,而成熟期落葉率之遺傳率較低,但成熟期落葉率與植株高度、百粒重兩性狀呈顯著負相關。在相關方面,顯示植株較高、植株較重、分枝數多、主莖節數多、莢數多且重、籽粒多且大、籽粒飽滿的遺傳因子型具有高產量,但成熟期落葉性佳的遺傳因子型產量低。在產量路徑分析方面,顯示以植株總重及單株莢數對籽粒產量正的貢獻量最大,而成熟期落葉率則對籽粒產量為負的貢獻。
(二)紅豆不同落葉型品種間各生育期落葉性之變異及與產量的關係
春作三種落葉型各生育期之落葉性均不會影響到單株莢重的累積,而單株產量以延遲落葉型(DLA)較高,其次為提早落葉型(ELA),最低為正常落葉型(NLA),其原因是延遲落葉型之莢果充實速率較提早落葉型及正常落葉型為高。在品種方面,僅有提早落葉型之中國赤ささげ及曉大納言兩品種之落葉性會影響單株莢重的累積,其原因是此二個品種受落葉影響,其莢果充實速率較低及有效充實期較短的關係。秋作除了延遲落葉型外,正常落葉型及提早落葉型之落葉性均會影響單株莢重的累積,而單株產量以延遲落葉型較高,其次為正常落葉型,最低為提早落葉型,其原因是延遲落葉型之莢果充實速率較高及有效充實期較長的關係。在品種方面,有正常落葉型之早生大粒品種及提早落葉型之圓葉64號及曉大納言兩品種之落葉性會影響單株莢重的累積,其原因是早生大粒品種因受落葉影響,其莢果充實速率較低及有效充實期較短,而圓葉64號及曉大納言兩品種則受落葉影響,其莢果充實速率降低。
(三)紅豆雜交組合F2族群之成熟期落葉性及其他農藝性狀之變異
七個組合之F2族群經主成分分析,以C191、192、C194與C193等四個組合關係較密切歸納為一群,而C189與C190兩組合關係較密切歸納為一群,而C188組合偏離而獨立一群,其原因可能是該組合之母本EX.Geneva Ny-a是來自瑞士日內瓦品種,而父本高雄7號為台灣國內育成的品種,兩親的遺傳差異較大,而其他六個組合之親本均來自日本或台灣。由F2族群的分離頻度可發現,七個雜交組合之成熟期葉片數、落葉率及葉綠素總量均有超越兩親分離的現象,其中落葉率呈右偏連續性分布,遺傳率為0.211∼0.550,有效基因對數至少有2∼4對所控制,顯示此性狀易受環境影響,其遺傳行為可能受多基因系統所控制,進行該性狀選拔時不宜在早期世代直接選拔,應著重於後期世代方始有效。在產量路徑分析方面,七個組合均以植株總重及單株莢數對籽粒產量正的貢獻量最大,而成熟期落葉率對籽粒產量直接效果在七個組合均為正的影響,主要經由植株總重之間接負的影響,而造成C190、C191、C193及C194等四個組合之成熟期落葉率與籽粒產量間呈顯著負相關,其餘C188、C189、C192等三個組合則相關不顯著,其對籽粒產量的貢獻量為-0.8∼-2.8%。顯示在C188、C189、C192等三個組合的後代族群中,有機會選拔到成熟期落葉性佳,且產量具有一定水準的遺傳因子型。

The main purposes of this research are to investigate the variation of leaf abscission at maturation stage and the other agronomic characters in 332 germplasms, 12 varieties of three leaf abscission genotypes, and F2 population of 7 cross combinations for adzuki bean, in order to select cross parent and develop selection. The results were summarized as follows:
(a) Variation on leaf abscission at maturity and the other
agronomic characters in 332 germplasms of adzuki bean.
The variation of leaf abscission at maturation stage and the other agronomic characters are different significantly among adzuki bean germplasms from various regions. In generally, the variation potential of leaf abscission in Taiwan gerplasms are larger than in China's. It might be caused to the different breeding purposes in different regions. The results showed that there are only 7 varieties have completely fallen their leaves at maturation stage among 332 germplasms. The 7 varieties could be as good materials to improve the less leaf abscission at the maturation stage. According to the genetic analysis, it showed the leaf abscission at maturation stage has wide variation potential but lower heritability. In contrary, both of the plant height and hundred-grain weight have higher heritability. The relationship between leaf abscission percentage and plant height and hundred-grain weight are negative. The correlation analysis showed the genetic factors including plant height, plant weight, hundred-grain weight, branch number, pod number, grain size, and plumpness of grain are all benefits to the yield. On the other hand, the genotype with better of leaf abscission downgrade its production. According to the path analysis revealed the total plant weight and pod number per plant contributed the maximum yield. However, the percentage of leaf abscission was negative to the seed production.
(b) The relationship between the different growth stages and
seed production for 12 varieties of three leaf abscission
genotypes.
According to the timing of leaf abscission, delay leaf abscission (DLA), normal leaf abscission (NLA), and early leaf abscission (ELA) were discriminated. The accumulation of pod weight per plant is similar among three types of adzuki bean mentioned above no matter of developing stage in spring crop season except for two ELA varieties, CR and AD. However, it was affected by the timing of leaf abscission in NLA and ELA genotypes in fall crop season. Besides, DLA genotype has the highest pod yield per plant than the others in both crop seasons. It might bring about the higher of filling rate and the longer of filling period. Furthermore, the accumulation of pod weight per plant of ELS, a NLA variety, was decreased by lower of filling rate and shorter of filling period. On the other hand, its accumulation in two ELA varieties, RL64 and AD, was only resulted from lower of filling rate.
(c) Variation of leaf abscission at maturation stage and the
other agronomic characters in F2 population of 7 cross
combinations.
According to the principal component analysis in F2 population of 7 cross combinations, there are three groups are classified. The group1 including four cross combinations, C191, C192, C193, and C194, and the group2 is composed to two combinations, C189 and C190. The analyzed results showed highly relationship in the same group. But, the group3 is only containing one combination, C188. It could cause to the farther genetic background than others. The percentage of leaf abscission (LAP) at maturation stage by distribution frequency analysis showed that all 7 cross combinations have transgressive segregation compared to their parents and trend to the continued distribution for right skewness. The heritability of LAP of 7 cross combinations are from 0.211 to 0.550. It prospected that this trait was controlled by at least 2 to 4 alleles and would be affected easier by environmental condition. The lower heritability suggests that it would be more benefit to select at later generation instead of earlier generation. The path analysis of production showed that total plant weight and pod numbers per plant are the main components of seed production. The direct effect of LAP at maturation stage showed positive correlation with seed production of all 7 combinations. However, the final relationship between LAP and seed yield of C190, C191, C193, and C194 combinations were negative, and C188, C189, and C192 combinations have no significantly correlation. They both result from the indirect negative effect of total plant weight to seed production. In conclusion, it's possible to select the genotype not only possesses good leaf abscission at maturation stage but also with higher seed production from C188, C189, and C192 combinations of segregation populations.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/37068
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