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Gallus Induction and Shoot Differentiation from Anther Culture in Arachis species
本研究利用栽培種花生(Arachis hypogaea L.)：台南選9號(TNS9)及台南11號(TN11);野生種花生：A. paraquariensis (No.1)、A. batizocoi (No.3)、A. stenosperma (No.4)、A.villosa (No.5)及A. pusilla (No.7)等7种花生之單核期花藥為培植體。以MS、N6、Miller、Sk3、He5、R-2、L8及Tung-Young等8种基礎培養基，分別添加2mg/1 IAA+4 mg//1 kinetin為癒合組織誘導培養基，比較不同種（品種）花生及不同培養基對花藥癒合組織誘導率之差異。另將MS培養基誘導之癒合組織接植於1/2 MS+0.5mg/1 IBA+|0.2mg/1 BA+10 g/1sucrose+2.5g/1 gelrite (代號F9)及MS+1mg/1 NAA+2mg/1 BA+30mg/1 sucrose+3.8mg/1 gelrite (代號H1)兩種分化培養基，進行種間癒合組織分化能力之比較。再以不同NAA與BA組合、蔗糖及凝膠濃度等14種（代號H1∼H14）分化培養基，探討對栽培種花生癒合組織分化之影響，結果如下：
1. 就八種誘導培養而言，所有培養基（添加4mg/1 IAA+2mg/1 kinetin）皆可誘導出癒合組織，而以MS培養基的效果最佳。
To study the callus induction from anthers of different species of Arachis, and the effeot of various media. Anthers at uninuoleate stage from two cultivars (TNS9 and TN11) and five wild species (No.1 No.3.No.4, No.5.No.7) were in vitro cultured in eight different basal media, i.e., Ms, Ns, MIller, Sk3, He5, R-2 L8 and Tung-Yong, each with an addition of 4mg/1IAA+2mg/1 kinetin. The calli induced in MS medium were suboultured in E9 (1/2 MS+ 0.5 mg/1 IBA+0.2 mg/1 BA+10 g/1 sucrose+2.5 g/1 gelrite) and HI (MS+1 m/1 NAA+2 mg/1 BA+30 mg/1 sucrose+3.8mg/1 gelrite) differentiation media to compare the differentiation ability of calli among species. Besides, the calli of the two cultivars induced in MS medium were subcultured in differentiation media on various combinations of NAA and BA, suorose and gelrite.The results were summarized.as follows:
1. AII the eight basal media , each with 4 mg/1 IAA+2mg/1 kinetin, gave sucessful induction of calli. Among them, MS medium seemed to be the best.
2.The callus induction rate of wild species were higher than that of cultivars. There was significant difference between or within species.
3. Shoots differentiated from calli were observed on only the two wild species, No.1 and No.7 And H1 medium was superior to E9 medium in this respect.
4. The callic of cultivars cultured in media with various combinations of NAA and BA showed little difference in differentiation ability. Few embryoids and roots appeard from the calli cultured in H1,H2 H5 and H6 medium. The response of calli cultured in other media were different. In qeneral, when the concentration of BA was high, eq, H7 (3mg/1) and H8 (4mg/1) media, calli became compact and green.observation of paraffin seotion showed that the differentiation of calli were promoted by increasing the BA concentration. But the frequency of white powdery calli increased also. when the concentration of BA or NAA was low, calli got brownish easily.
5.Sucrose level in media showed no effeot on differentiation of calli of cultivars. when the level of sucrose increased, calli got more compact and greener.observation of paraffin seotion showed that the differentiation of calli were promoted by increasing the sucrose level. But the frequency of white powdery calli increased also.
6. There was no effect on differentiation of calli of cultivars cultured in media with high gelrite levels.The calli became large in volume, friable and dry. The frequency of white powdery calli increased also.
7.The chromosome number of rooted cell differentiated from calli of wild species (No.1 and No.7) were 10.
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