Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/37163
標題: 土壤特性及其管理對稻米品質之影響
Effects of Soli Characteristics and Its Management on Rice Quality
作者: 蘇慕容
Su, Muh-Rong
關鍵字: 土壤特性;稻米品質
出版社: 農藝學研究所
摘要: 
本試驗目的在探討土壤特性對稻米品質之影響,並進一步針對影響米質之土壤因素加以改善,以收改進稻米品質之效。試驗共分兩部分,第一部分連續在1989-1991年,共三年五期作,90個地點,調查十七土壤特性(包括化學,物理性)對十三項米質因子(含碾米、化學、物理性及食味)之影響。水稻品種為臺農70號及臺中189號兩個良質米品質。第一部分試驗調查結果顯示,有關土壤化學肥力因子中,包括有效鋅、錳、交換性鎂及全氮等含量較低之土壤,生產之稻米品質普遍有較好的趨勢;有機質含量較高之土壤,生產之稻米飯食味亦較佳。
為驗證第一部分試驗結果,本試驗乃於1993年一、二期作,於全省中南東部選擇八個土系,進行第二部分試驗,以進一步探討土壤管量改善稻米品質之可行性。試驗水稻品種採臺中189號。裂區設計,主區為氮肥減施(80kgN/ha)處理,以氮肥全量(120kgN/ha)施用為對照,副區施以高C/N有機質施用(樹皮堆肥20ton/ha),對照區不施用有機質,小區為增加一倍鉀肥處理,對照區鉀肥一般用量。試驗結果顯示,八個土系之間米質有極顯著的差異,在氮肥減施處理下,普遍導致米飯外觀(包括潔白度、明亮度完整度)變劣,也導致一期作直鏈澱粉含量降低。鉀肥增施效果顯著,有普遍改善各土系米飯之外觀、食味,及提高一期作直鏈澱粉含量之結果。增施高C/N有機質對米飯食味僅濁水系及舊冬腳系二處土系對米飯潔白度及軟度有改善效果,並提高直鏈澱粉含量。此外,本試驗在1993年一,二期作於中興大學農埸,進行田間試驗,比較不同C/N有機質對臺中189號及臺農67號兩品質之影響。結果顯示,一期作高C/N之榖穀處理,生產之米飯食味優於低C/N 之有機肥處理,二期作試驗則有機肥處理之間對米飯食味各項目皆無顯著差異。本試驗結果顯示選擇適當的土壤,增加有機質及鉀肥的施用,皆有助於改善良質米的食味品質。

This experiment included two parts of field experiment, aimed to improve rice quality by management of soils. In order to investigate the effects of soil chatacteristics on rice quality, 90 paddy fields in central Taiwan were surveyed during 1989 to 1991. Results from the first part of experiment showed that soils with higher organic matter contents, lower total nitrogen exchangeable calcium, magnesium, zinc and reducible manganese, produced rice with good eating quality.
In order to verify the experimental results from the first part , field experiments including 8 soil series around the island were conducted in the first and second crop of 1993. Split-plot design was applied. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer (80kg N/ha) was the main plot which 1/3 of 120 kg N/ha was reduced , while the control plot applied 120 kgN/ha. Application of high C/N organic matter (20 ton/ha) was the sub-plot, while the control plot has no organic matter added. Double the potassium fertilizer (ahout 100-140kg K/ha according to availability of potasium in soil ) was he sub-subplot, while ordinary amount of potassium fertilizer(50-70 kg K/ha ) applied as the control. Rice cultivar Taichung 189 was used for the second experiment.
Experimental results showed that rice quality are aignificantly different among the 8 soil series. Reducin g nitrogen fertilizer produced rice with poorer appearance (including whiteness, brightness, intactness ) of cooded rice than that from the control plot, and amylose contents of rice were also reduced. Application of double amount potassium fertilizer enhanced appearnce and eating quality of cooked rice in most soil series, and also caused a higher amylosed contents of rice. On the other hand, application of high C/N organic matter only showed an improvement of whiteness and softness of cooked rice on choshui and chiutung-chiao soil series.
In addition to the two parts of experiment, another field experiment was conducted on the farm of NCHU in 1993. Results showed that applilcation of rice hull (high C/N, 20 ton/ha) improved rice quality for all the components of eating quality, while the NO. 1 organic fertilizer (low C/N, Taiwan fertilizer Co.) showed adverse effects on rice qrality. The results suggest that select a suitable soil and rice cultivar, application of more potassium fertilizer and high C/N organic matter to the paddy soil, are essential to a better quality of rice.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/37163
Appears in Collections:農藝學系

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