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Weeding control by duck in organic paddy fields
本研究自2001年二期作至2002年二期作連續三期作於中興大學農業試驗場（台中縣霧峰）進行田間試驗，探討有機稻田不同雜草控制方法的防治效果，及其對水稻生長、產量和稻米品質之影響。水稻品種為台稉9號。試驗採完全逢機設計（CRD），三重複。2001年二期作分別以紙膜、滿江紅、稻殼、煙燻稻殼及鴨子等進行有機稻田雜草控制試驗。2002年一期作增加黃豆粉及米糠處理，施用量分別為0.3及0.5 kg/m2。鴨子處理則進行三個等級飼鴨密度試驗，以探尋最適的鴨子放飼量。為瞭解黃豆粉及米糠最適用量，於二期作進行不同等級用量試驗。黃豆粉三個施用量分別為0.3、0.6及0.9 kg/m2，米糠三個施用量分別為0.5、1及1.5 kg/m2，皆於插秧後隨即施用。
連續三期作試驗結果顯示，2002年一期作以紙膜及飼鴨處理抑制雜草效果最佳，抑制效果均達99 %以上。滿江紅及米糠抑制雜草效果次之，由於滿江紅生長迅速，一個月即能覆蓋整個田面，雜草抑制效果亦佳。2002年二期作試驗結果顯示，仍以紙膜敷蓋處理對雜草的防治效果最好，而飼鴨處理抑制雜草效果亦佳，抑制效果達99.5 %。黃豆粉施用0.3 kg/m2 即可有效抑制雜草族群74.8 %，若以0.6及0.9 kg/m2之高施用量，雖能有效控制雜草，但也會對水稻幼苗造成傷害。施用米糠也造成相同結果，0.5 kg/m2用量即可，若施用量超過1 kg/m2容易傷害水稻幼苗，嚴重者則死亡。
Measures of weed control in organic paddy fields
Field experiments were conducted from the second crop season of 2001 through the second crop season of 2002 on the paddy fields at Agriculture Experimental Station(AES; Wufeng, Taichung)of National ChungHsing University(NCHU), to investigate effects of several weed control methods in organic farming, on growth and quality of rice cultivar Tai-keng 9 (TK9). Experimental design was conducted by completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replications. Treatments including mulching of paper, azolla (Variety Lima), rice hull, and biological control by ducks were applied in the second crop of 2001. Treatments with spreading of soybean meal (0.3 kg/m2) and rice bran (0.5 kg/m2) were added in the first crop of 2002. Three densities of duck were conducted to find out the optimum intensity. In order to understand the most appropriate application rate of soybean meal and rice bran, three application rates 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 kg/m2 of soybean meal, and three application rates 0.5, 1, and 1.5 kg/m2 of rice bran, were conducted in the second crop of 2002, respectively.
Experimental results of three continuous crops indicated that mulching of paper and ducks feeding had the highest weed control efficiency in the first crop of 2002. More than 99% weeds were controlled. The weed control efficiency of azolla and spreading with rice bran treatments were on the second rank. Azolla grew fast that mulched the whole field surface in only one month. It also showed a high efficiency on weed control. Experimental results of the second crop of 2002 showed that mulching of paper controlled weed with highest efficiency again. Duck treatment showed weed control efficiency as high as that 99.5% weeds were inhibited. Spreading of soybean meal (0.3 kg/m2) efficiently controlled the weed by 74.8 %, but the high application rates (0.6 and 0.9 kg/m2) caused damages of rice seedling. Spreading of rice bran also controlled weed well with the application rate of 0.5 kg/m2, more than 1 kg/m2 caused damages of rice seedling.
Yield of rice by duck treatment was the highest in the second crop of 2001, first and second crops of 2002, mostly owing to the increase of tiller and panicles of rice. The quadratic response for yield to ducks density was Y＝620＋58.58 X－0.1445 X2. Then the optimal input is suggested as 202 bird/ha. The high temperature environment in the second crop inhibited growth of azolla and made weed grew faster than azolla. There were no significant differences of measures in weed control. The content of amylose and crude protein in rice were higher in the second crop than that in the first crop. Content of crude protein in rice harvested from smoked rice hull and paper mulching plots were lower in the second crop of 2001. Content of crude protein in rice harvested from spreading with soybean meal and rice bran plots were higher in the second crop of 2002 than that from other treatments. Weed control measures had no significant effects on rice quality.
Experimental results indicated that mulching of paper control the weed population most efficiently. Since the cost is too expensive, and its composition meet the demand of regulation of organic farming, mulching of paper is still not recommend. Spreading of soybean meal also controlled weeds well and in low cost. Raising ducks in the paddy fields efficiently controlled the weeds and insects and Fu So Snail.
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