Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/37193
標題: 稻草應用為水稻育苗介質之研究
Studies on the Utilization of Rice Straw as Seedling Nursery Medium in Rice
作者: 吳錫家
Wu, Hsi-Chia
關鍵字: Rice;水稻;Nursery medium;Rice straw;Seedling quality;Yield;育苗介質;稻草;秧苗品質;產量
出版社: 農藝學系
摘要: 
本研究的目地在探討以稻草做為水稻的單一育苗介質,培育適合機械插秧秧苗之可行性;本研究共分為三部份,即(一)稻草介質的理化性質分析;(二)利用稻草為介質培育水稻秧苗技術之探討;及(三)以稻草為介質培育水稻秧苗移植本田後的表現。使用的水稻品種主要為台稉8號,部份試驗並增加台農67號為材料。
在稻草物理性質測定方面,總孔隙度、極有效水分與氣相及液相比率均高於土壤,固相及總體密度則較低,低水分張力下體積含水百分率則與土壤差異不大;化學分析顯示pH及 EC值在理想育苗介質範圍內,經高溫灰化後分析亦顯示含有多種營養要素;整體物理與化學性狀表現適合做為水稻育苗介質。
利用稻草為介質培育水稻秧苗之栽培技術試驗,主要結論包括 (一) 稻草切割長度以不超過9.5 mm為原則,並尋得效率極高之切割機械;(二) 每一育苗箱之稻草介質用量以350-400 g為最理想;(三) 施用台肥43號複合肥料的效果優於使用硫酸銨、過磷酸鈣、氯化鉀三要素肥料,其用量以每一育苗箱8 g為宜;(四) 理想的肥料施用方式為播種後1-3日待育苗箱移置綠化場時再行撒施;(五) 育苗期的水分管理方式可採行淹水32小時、排乾16小時之處理。
經由上述方法培育之水稻秧苗,在一些形態與乾物質性狀的表現方面,均與以土壤為介質育成之秧苗相當或較優,經以插秧機移植於田間,其缺株率、每欉秧苗數、田間成活率亦與土壤對照處理無顯著差異,顯示以稻草為介質培育之秧苗適合於現行插秧機作業。
將稻草為介質培育之秧苗移植田間,抽穗期及成熟期之全株乾物重、稻穀產量、各產量構成要素、糙米率及白米率均與土壤對照處理相同;台農67號與台稉8號的表現相似,顯示以稻草為介質培育之秧苗有應用於大面積栽培的潛力。
以稻草為介質培育水稻秧苗,尚具有重量輕、易於操作及減少用土量等優點,但仍應對稻草收存處理、建立完整而成熟的育苗技術、成本分析等問題再予瞭解。此外由於每公頃稻田僅需100 kg稻草育苗,不足以解決稻草利用問題;如能以本研究結果為基礎,開發以稻草為主體材料之介質配方與栽培技術,應用於其他農、園藝作物之育苗及生產,或可有效提高稻草之利用價值及降低長期以來因焚燒稻草所導致之環境污染問題。

The purpose of this research was to study the possibility of using rice straw as the sole nursery medium for raising rice seedlings suitable for machine transplanting. This research was composed of three portions: (1) the analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of the rice straw; (2) the techniques related to seedling nursery by using the new nursery medium; and (3) the survey of yield and agronomic characteristics after the seedlings were transplanted to the paddy field. Rice cultivar Taikeng 8 was used throughout the study and Tainung 67 was used in part of the experiments.
Rice straw cut at different lengths exhibited higher proportions or percentages of total porosity, easily available water, and liquid and gas phases, whereas lower solid phase and bulk density, than the soil medium. The water-holding capacities (volume %) of rice straw under low water tension (10-50 cm) was about the same as those of the soil medium. Chemical analysis showed that the pH and EC values of rice straw fell within optimal ranges for use as nursery medium. Analysis after wet-ashing the straw indicated the presence of various mineral elements. Overall evaluation suggested the suitability of using rice straw for raising seedlings.
The results of developing techniques for seedling nursery were summarized as follows. (1) Straw with a length not exceeding 9.5 mm, either cut manually or cut with a machine, was recommended; (2) the amount of 350-400 g rice straw per nursery tray produced the best results of seedling performance; (3) the effect of using 8 g Taiwan No. 43 Compound Fertilizer per tray was superior to that of using ammonium sulfate, calcium superphosphate, and potassium chloride as sources of N, P, and K; (4) application of fertilizer by spraying when the nursery trays were moved to the greening field (1-3 days after sowing) was recommended; and (5) a cycle of flooding for 32 hrs followed by draining for 16 hrs was suggested as the ideal water management method during the nursery period.
Seedlings raised according to the above criteria showed comparable or better performances in several morphological and dry matter accumulation characteristics as compared to seedlings with soil as nursery matrix (CK). Investigation of missing hills and field survival rates after transplanting indicated that seedlings produced by the new method could adapt well to the operation of the currently used power transplanters.
After transplanting to the paddy field, seedlings produced from both rice-straw and soil as nursery media exhibited no statistical significant differences in their performances in dry matter accumulation at heading and harvest, grain yield, yield components, brown rice rate, and milling rate. These results implied the possibility of economic production by utilizing seedlings from the newly-developed nursery method.
Other merits of using rice straw as nursery medium included its light weight, easy operation, and substitution for soil which was difficult to obtain due to environmental issues. However, further studies concerning the handling of rice straw, the development of complete nursery techniques, and the analysis of cost and profit are still need. Furthermore, the amount of rice straw needed to produce seedlings enough for 1 ha of field production is only 100 kg. This amount is too insignifi- cant to solve the problem of straw utilization. The results of this research encourage the study and development of new formulations and cultural techniques with rice straw as the main medium material for the production of horticultural and other agronomic crops. Hopefully, the outcomes will be able to enhance the utilization value or rice straw and to reduce the long-existed pollution problem caused by straw burning.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/37193
Appears in Collections:農藝學系

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