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標題: 以分子標誌輔助抗白葉枯病基因導入臺南11號水稻品種
The application of marker-assisted selection method in introgression of bacterial blight resistance genes into Tainan 11 (TN11) rice variety
作者: 楊喬安
Yang, Chiao-An
關鍵字: 水稻;Rice;白葉枯病;回交育種;分子標誌輔助育種;bacterial blight disease;backcross breeding;MAS
出版社: 農藝學系所
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稻白葉枯病(bacterial blight diease)係由黃單孢稈菌(Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae)感染引起,導致稻產量減少20%至50%,嚴重則無可收穫。依據gene for gene之理論,病原菌與寄主植物間關係是由單一基因控制且具專一性。若將抗性基因導入不具抗性之植株中,將可使植株表現抗病能力,然而病原菌容易隨著環境氣候變化而衍生出許多生理小種,因此單一抗性基因之育種策略易導致抗性崩解,白葉枯病可隨著抗性基因堆疊數目的增加,可有效的產生廣福抗性。臺南11 號 (TN11) 為目前臺灣栽種面積最廣的品種,具有米質優、豐產、抗倒伏及抗飛蝨等優良特性,但對白葉枯病敏感。本研究以國際水稻研究所(IRRI)育成帶有多個抗白葉枯病基因的秈稻品系IRBB62 (Xa4+Xa7+Xa21) 與IRBB66 (Xa4+xa5+Xa7+xa13+Xa21) 做為抗病基因之提供親,利用雜交、回交育種導入臺南11號,配合與抗性基因連鎖之分子標誌,進行前景選拔和背景篩選,以育成具有多個抗白葉枯病基因,並維持臺南11號的優良農藝性狀的品種。經由文獻找尋並自行開發的分子標誌,篩選每個世代的雜交後代。以病原菌XF89-b接種BC3F1結果顯示,帶有三個以上的抗性基因者,具有強的抗病性,而帶有五個抗性基因之植株有穩定的白葉枯病抗性;目前進行至回交第四代BC4F1,接種白葉枯病病原菌強致病病原菌系Xoo-F2後皆呈現抗性,且背景與輪迴親相似度愈高的植株,其外表型與米粒粒型近似臺南11號。未來經前景、背景及抗病篩選後,就可進行自交產生純質品系,育成農藝特性與輪迴親相似,且具有優良白葉枯病抗性的新臺南11號品種。

Rice bacterial blight disease, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a major disease throughout the rice cultivation area of the world. It may cause rice yield loss up to 20% to 50%. Based on the gene for gene theory, the R gene specifically recognizes the product of pathogen avirulence (avr) gene hence, the introgression of bacterial blight resistance gene to the susceptible variety will provide resistance. When using one single gene for resistance, pathogen will be forced to mutate to a new race leading to the breakdown of resistance. Tainan 11 (TN11) is the most popular rice variety in Taiwan, it has good grian quality, high yield, resistance to planthoppers, low shattering and anti-lodging. However TN11 is very susceptible to the bacterial blight disease. In this study, the IRBB62 (Xa4+Xa7+Xa21) and IRBB66 (Xa4+xa5+Xa7+xa13+Xa21) of various Xa genes were used as donor parents to improve the disease resistance of TN11 through marker-assisted backcrossing approach. In each generation, the tight linked markers (simple sequence repeats, SSR) were applied to select the resistant gene (foreground selection) and the polymorphic markers of donor and recurrent parent were used for background selection. The BC4F1 plants containing more than three Xa genes show a high resistant level and plants with five Xa genes show very stable resistance to the bacterial blight disease, and similar agronomy traits with TN11. According to this study, new rice varieties with almost identical agronomic traits as the TN11 variety and a durable resistance to the bacterial blight disease can be anticipated.
其他識別: U0005-1908201316304500
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