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Water management and methane emission in water-saving irrigated rice
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台灣傳統以移植稻方式在湛水狀態下栽培水稻，因此耗費較多的水資源，長期浸水的水稻田也導致甲烷生成的有利條件及改變養份的利用。若能改變水田水分管理方式，可能可以有效降低甲烷排放且維持產量。本研究於嘉義地區坋質-黏土的土壤進行兩種水分處理栽培試驗，一種為利用田間觀測管判定地下水位高低的節水栽培，另一種為慣行的栽培法，節水栽培是依觀測管水位是否低於地表下25 cm定為灌水標準。這種方法是根據田間水位高低與土壤水分含量的關係建立。比較兩種水分管理方法，節水栽培在一期作可節省21%灌溉水，二期作可節省29%灌溉水，節水栽培不影響台稉9號的產量構成要素與產生。另外試驗追蹤田區的甲烷釋放量，一期作在開花期前後看到甲烷釋放的高峰，二期作則營養生長期(插秧後4至6週)出現甲烷釋放量的高峰，兩個期作水田甲烷釋放的趨勢不一致，全季甲烷排放量因水分管理、氮肥處理、栽培生長期及監測取樣點不同具有很大的差異，全季甲烷排放量最低是一期作氮肥180公斤節水處理的1.31 g/m2，最高是二期作氮肥240公斤湛水處理的23.72 g/m2。全季的甲烷排放量一期作比二期作少，主要原因是二期作插秧後時段的土壤溫度夠高，且生育初期供應足夠水分，這些條件促進甲烷菌的生理代謝而導致較多的甲烷排放。本試驗結果證實水田甲烷排放量主要受土壤溫度及田間水分多寡決定，追蹤田區水位與甲烷施放量的關係，資料呈現觀測管地表下水位低於20 cm(<-20 cm)時顯著抑制甲烷排放。
Traditional transplanted rice with continuous standing water in Taiwan has relatively high water inputs. Flooding of the soil is a prerequisite for sustained emissions of methane and modifies nutrient use efficiencies. Manipulation of rice floodwater may offer a means of mitigating methane emission from rice fields without reducing rice yields. To test methods for reducing methane emission and water consumption, we applied two water management methods to rice fields planted on silty-clay soils near Chaiyi, Taiwan. The two water treatments investigated were: field water depth assisted water-saving irrigation, traditional flooding irrigation with midseason drainage aeration. 25 cm under-ground water tube level set as a criterion for water-saving irrigation according to the relationship of field water depth and available soil water content. Compared with conventional irrigation where drainage was in mid-season and flooded at other times, the water-saving irrigation reduced irrigation water by 21% in 1st cropping season and 29% in 2nd cropping season, and without any detrimental effect on yield components and grain yield of Taikeng 9 cultivar. In 1st cropping season there were methane peak on the flowering stage, while the peak appeared on the vegetative stage (4-6 weeks after transplanting) in 2nd cropping season. Methane emission rates varied markedly with water regime, nitrogen treatment, cropping season, and monitor point showing the lowest seasonal total emission (1.31 g m-2) with a N180 water-saving irrigation in 1st cropping season and the highest (23.27 g m-2) with a N240 flooding treatment in 2nd cropping season. Whole season accumulated methane emission of the 1st cropping season was lower than that of 2nd cropping season, it is supposed by the soil temperature and soil moisture on the early stage of 2nd cropping season much appropriate for methanogenic bacteria. Methane emissions from rice fields are determined mainly by soil temperature and water regime, and field water depth below 20 cm significantly suppress methane emissions.
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