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Utilizing the commercial paper phenolic board to synthesize carbon nanomaterials by thermal pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition
|關鍵字:||Carbon nanomaterials;奈米碳材;Printed circuit board;Recycle;Green technology;印刷電路板;酚醛樹酯||出版社:||化學工程學系所||引用:|| T. V. Hughes, and C. R. Chambers, "Manufacture of carbon filaments", US Patent No. 405, (1889).  R. Iley, and H. L. Riley, "The deposition of carbon on vitreius silica", J. Chem. Soc., pp. 1362-1366 (1948).  R. T. K. Baker, "Catalytic growth of carbon filaments", Carbon, Vol. 27, pp. 315-323 (1989).  S. Iijima, "Helical microtubles of graphitic carbon", Nature, Vol. 354, pp. 56-58 (1991).  S. H. Yoon, C. W. Park, H. Yang, Y. Korai, I. Mochida, R. T. K. Baker , and N. M. Rodriguez, "Novel carbon nanofibers of high graphitization as anodic materials for lithium ion secondary batteries", Carbon, Vol. 42, pp. 21-32 (2004).  K. Suzuki, T. Iijima, and M. Wakihara, "Electrode characteristics of pitch-based carbon fiber as an anode in lithium rechargeable battery", Electr. Act., Vol. 44, pp. 2185-2191 (1999).  M. Endo, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, K. Nishimura, T. Matusita, K. 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Lin, P. Y. Shih, and C. M. Chen, "A current-induced localized heating technique for fabrication of carbon nanomaterials", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 492, pp. 521-524 (2010).||摘要:||
印刷電路板(printed circuit board, PCB)是由絕緣材料與導體所組成，依據結構、製程、材質、外觀、物理特性、應用等可以分成多種種類。印刷電路板的主要功能為電器連接及承載元件，故其需具備耐熱、剛強度、低電阻等等特性。隨著電子產品的迅速進步，設計變更以及零件更新都需要重新訂製所需的電路板。相對的，將會有大量的電子產品遭到淘汰，這些淘汰掉的電路板將會對環境造成一定量的破壞。由於電路板上層的金屬價格貴重，通常會以特定蝕刻液回收貴金屬，並還原再利用。而下層的高分子基板由於價格低廉，一般都是送至回收場銷毀並無太大的利用價值。本研究中使用三種不同方式的觸媒，並搭配化學氣相沉積法以即熱裂解法合成奈米碳材，提供一電路板回收再利用之綠色技術。
A bilayer copper (Cu)/polymer laminate is the prototype of printed circuit board (PCB). Owing to possess the characteristics of low cost and easy fabrication, PCBs have been widely manufactured and used in a variety of electronic products. But the lifetime of consumer electronic products is usually very short. They become out-of-date very quickly and then are abandoned. Unfortunately, this produces large amounts of waste electronic products including PCBs which might have detrimental effects on the environment. To reduce the detrimental effects, some metallic components, such as Cu used in conductive traces on PCBs, are recycled and reused. Polymer materials, such as the insulating substrates of PCBs, are also widely used in consumer electronic products. However, the recycling of polymer materials is not currently put into practice. Therefore, development of a suitable recycling technique for the polymer component is urgent. This study demonstrates that the polymer component might be a good carbon source for the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials. Different kinds of catalysts were used to synthesize valuable carbon nanomaterials from the commercial paper phenolic (PP) board.
First of all, we used NiCl2(aq) as the catalyst precursor and PP board as the carbon source. Carbon nanomaterials were produced by pyrolyzing PP board and NiCl2¬ at temperatures 800, 900 and 1000℃, respectively, under N2 atmosphere. The tubular and platelet-like nanofibers were synthesized at 800℃, while the herringbone-like nanofibers and carbon nanospheres were found at 900℃. Other than the above, we synthesized two different nanofibers, one is platelet-like and the other is with two graphite staked tubewalls at 1000℃. With increase the temperature, the graphitization degree gets better.
Second, the nano-Ni/Mg alloy has been used to grow carbon nanomaterials under various reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, gas flow rate, hydrogen addition, amount of PP board, and carbon source, in order to obtain the optimum growth condition. We could get highest yield and well graphite at 750℃, 100sccm, 100% hydrogen with 10g PP board.
Finally, we used zeolite-supported catalysts (such as Ni, Co, Fe, Ni/Mg, and Cu) to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in order to observe the influence of the catalyst size. The CNTs and CNFs were synthesized at 800℃ using nickel as the catalyst, while the CNFs were found at all the temperatures with Ni-Mg. When we used Co as the catalyst, we just could get few carbon nanotubes at 1000℃. Fe as catalyst can synthesize straight CNTs, CNFs, and bamboo-like carbon nanotube between 800℃ and 1000℃.
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