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|標題:||Regulatory factors associated with synthesis of the osmolyte glycine betaine in the halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis||作者:||Lai, M.C.
|關鍵字:||compatible solutes;osmotic adaptation;methanogenic archaebacteria;escherichia-coli;hypersaline environments;organic osmolytes;bacteria;osmoregulation;stress;glutamate||Project:||Applied and Environmental Microbiology||期刊/報告no：:||Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 65, Issue 2, Page(s) 828-833.||摘要:||
The halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis can synthesize de novo and accumulate beta-glutamine, N-epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine, and glycine betaine (betaine) as compatible solutes (osmolytes) when grown at elevated salt concentrations. Both in vivo and in vitro betaine formation assays in this study confirmed previous nuclear magnetic resonance C-13-labelling studies showing that the de novo synthesis of betaine proceeded from glycine, sarcosine, and dimethylglycine to form betaine through threefold methylation. Exogenous sarcosine (1 mM) effectively suppressed the intracellular accumulation of betaine, and a higher level of sarcosine accumulation was accompanied by a lower level of betaine synthesis. Exogenous dimethylglycine has an effect similar to that of betaine addition, which increased the intracellular pool of betaine and suppressed the levels of N-epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine and beta-glutamine. Both in vivo and in vitro betaine formation assays with glycine as the substrate showed only sarcosine and betaine, but no dimethylglycine. Dimethylglycine was detected only when it was added as a substrate in in vitro assays. A high level of potassium (400 mM and above) was necessary for betaine formation in vitro. Interestingly, no methylamines were detected without the addition of KCl. Also, high levels of NaCl and LiCl (800 mM) favored sarcosine accumulation, while a lower level (400 mM) favored betaine synthesis. The above observations indicate that a high sarcosine level suppressed multiple methylation while dimethylglycine was rapidly converted to betaine. Also, high levels of potassium led to greater amounts of betaine, while lower levels of potassium led to greater amounts of sarcosine. This finding suggests that the intracellular levels of both sarcosine and potassium are associated with the regulation of betaine synthesis in M. portucalensis.
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