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The effects of strain on Ni/Sn interfacial reactions
|關鍵字:||strain;應變;Ni/Sn;interfacial reactions;鎳/錫;界面反應||出版社:||化學工程學系所||引用:|| M. K. M. Arshad, I. Ahmad, A. Jalar, and G. Omar, "The surface characteristics of under bump metallurgy (UBM) in electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) deposition," Microelectronics and Reliability, Vol. 46, pp. 367-379, (2006).  C. T. Peng, C. T. Kuo, K. Chiang, T. Ku, and K. Chang, "Experimental characterization and mechanical behavior analysis of intermetallic compounds of Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder bump with Ti/Cu/Ni UBM on copper chip," Microelectronics and Reliability, Vol. 46, pp. 523-534, (2006).  C. K. Wong, J. H. L. Pang, J. W. Tew, B. K. Lok, H. J. Lu, F. L. Ng, and Y. F. Sun, "The influence of solder volume and pad area on Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Ni UBM reaction in reflow soldering and isothermal aging," Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 48, pp. 611-621, (2008).  J. D. Wu, P. J. Zheng, C. W. Lee, S. C. Hung, and J. J. 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實驗結果發現Ni/Sn界面反應在200ºC、170 ºC以及150 ºC下生成Ni3Sn4相，受壓縮或拉伸應力皆會影響IMC相厚度，而隨反應時間越長，應力造成影響越大，且受壓縮應力約略等於拉伸應力，而不受應力樣品IMC生成速度最慢，進而造成Ni3Sn4相厚度的不同。且外加應變會影響Ni金屬層晶粒，不受應力之試片中Ni金屬顆粒較沒有一致的方向，且受壓縮應力會使晶粒呈現細長狀，相反地受拉伸應力會使晶粒尺寸較大。
Flip chip in package have been used extensively in electronic product, the advantage of small size, high density, good reliability has been discovered. Flip chip is made by solder joint and under bump metallurgy. To decrease copper atom reacting with solder, a diffusion barrier in UBM that made by nickel is been researched extensively. Because of the difference of coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal stress is become an important issue. The solder joints wetting, interfacial reaction of solder and substrate would be problem in electronic reliability. In order to realize the difference of Coefficient of thermal expansion, we applied compression and tension stress/strain by modules on silicon wafer. With different UBM layer that effect Ni/Sn interfacial reaction.
Ni3Sn4 phase formed between Ni/Sn interfacial at 200, 170, 150ºC. Regardless of compression or tension strain would cause IMC thickness growth thicker. With reaction time increasing, the effect of strain/stress is going to be great. Moreover, the applied strain/stress could force nickel grain growth. In FIB cross section, compression strain would cause grain become long and thin vertically. Tension strain would cause grain growth bigger and got uniform grain boundary.
In reflow experiment, Ni3Sn4 grain morphology grow smaller because of the strain larger. In region M, the Ni3Sn4 grain become smaller. With no bending specimen, the Ni3Sn4 grain become large. Ni3Sn4 grain difference being less until reflow time exceed to 60min. In initial reaction stage, Ni3Sn4 grain would be round shape. Then Ni3Sn4 grain grow from round shape to needle crystal. Finally, needle crystal become to faceted crystal.
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