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A Study of Sacrificial Layer Technology for the Fabrication of Assembly Si-based Electret Condenser Microphones
|關鍵字:||駐極體麥克風;electret condenser microphone;犧牲層;振膜;脫離技術;頻率響應;sacrificial layer;diaphragm;wafer transfer technology;frequency response||出版社:||精密工程學系所||引用:|| P. R. Scheeper, V. D. Donk, W. Olthuis and P. Bergveld, “A review of silicon microphones,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 44, pp. 1-11, 1994.  G. M. Sessler, “New acoustic sensors,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 25-27, pp. 323-330, 1991.  M. Royer, J. O. Holmen, M. A. Wurm, O. S. Aadland and M. Glenn, “ZnO on Si integrated acoustic sensor,” Sensor and Actuators, vol. 4, pp. 357-362, 1983.  R. Schellin and G. Hess, “A silicon subminiature microphone based on piezoresistive polysilicon strain gauges,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 32, pp. 555-559, 1992.  D. Hohm and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Silicon-dioxide electret transducer,” Journal of The Acoustical Society America, vol. 75, 4, pp. 1297-1298, 1984.  A. J. Sprenkels, R. A. Groothengel, A. J. Verloop and P. Bergveld, “Development of an electret microphone in silicon,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 17, pp. 509-512, 1989.  P. R. Scheeper, V. D. Donk, W. Olthuis and P. Bergveld, “Fabrication of silicon condenser microphone using single wafer technology,” Journal Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 1, 3, 1992.  P. R. Scheeper, W. Olthuis and P. Bergveld, “The design, fabrication, and testing of corrugated silicon nitride diaphragms,” Journal Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 3, 1, pp. 36-42, 1994.  P. C. Hsu, C. H. Mastrangelo, and K. D. Wise, “A high sensitivity polysilicon diaphragm condenser microphone,” Center for Integrated Sensors and Circuits, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, pp. 25-29, 1998.  W. Kuhnel and G. Hess, “A silicon condenser microphone with structured backplate and silicon nitride membrane,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 30, pp. 251-258, 1992.  M. Pedersen, W. Olthuis and P. Bergveld, “A polymer condenser microphone on silicon with on-chip CMOS amplifier,” International Conference Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, pp. 445-446, 1997.  W. H. Hsieh, T. Y. Hsu and Y. C. Tai, “A micromachined thin-film teflon electret microphone,” International Conference Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, pp. 425-428, 1997.  M. Gayford, Microphone engineering handbook, 1994.  J. J. Bernstein and J. T. Borenstein, “A micromachined silicon condenser microphone with on-chip amplifier,” Technical Digest of the Solid State Sensors and Actuators Workshop, pp. 239-243, 1996.  Michael Pedersen, A polymer condenser microphone realised on silicon containing preprocessed integrated circuits, 1997.  K. B. Sundaram, R. E. Sah, H. Baumann, K. Balachandran, and R. M. Todi, “Wet etching studies of silicon nitride thin films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 70, pp. 109–114, 2003.  邢泰剛, 微機電系統技術與應用, 行政院國家科學委員會精密儀器發展中心出版, pp. 544-562, 民國92年.  J. L. Vossen, W. Kern, Thin film processes, 1978.  許池榮, 組合式微型麥克風元件製程技術之研發, 國立中興大學精密工程研究所碩士論文, 94年.  袁宗廷, 高感度電容式矽微麥克風之研製, 國立中興大學精密工程研究所碩士論文, 94年.  胡辜昱, 單晶片電容式麥克風之設計與研發, 國立中興大學精密工程研究所碩士論文, 94年.  陳建盛, 矽晶麥克風之研製, 國立交通大學電機與控制工程系碩士論文, 88年. http://www.starmicronics.com/components/components_pages/prod_series/maa-03a-l_series.html.||摘要:||
因考量單晶片與雙晶片麥克風會遭遇到部份問題，於是以犧牲層所發展的脫離技術製作振膜結構。犧牲層以低成本、易移除且脫離之後振膜結構具有高良率為選用條件，於是評估多種犧牲層之可行性，並透過實作過程所遭遇到的問題並逐步改善振膜製程之結構，故選用乾氧化二氧化矽做為犧牲層，氧化一片四吋矽晶圓花費NT 200元、脫離過程花費五小時將犧牲層掏空且脫離後良率可達九成以上，並搭配磁力收集技術可一次完整收集晶圓上所有已脫離之振膜結構並進行封裝製程，經脫離後之振膜結構於1 kHz之取樣頻率並由駐極體材料所提供的-175 V偏壓下所量測可得到-32.4 dBV/Pa的增益輸出，全感度約為25.12 mV/Pa，遠遠高於市面之麥克風性能。良率由原本最初實驗的一成提升至九成以上，犧牲層之成本與感應式耦合電漿化學氣相沈積系統所沈積之氮化矽相較起來僅需三分之一的成本，整體而言，選用四吋晶圓做為基材，平均一顆組合式駐極體麥克風成本為NT 7元。
In this paper we had developed a high sensitivity assembly Si-based electret condenser microphone using wafer transfer technology and magnetic force collection method. An electret microphone mainly consists of three parts, a diaphragm, a spacer and an electret backplate. We developed a wafer transfer technology which the sacrificial layer can be remove rapidly as well as low cost of it. The result shows a high performance electret condenser microphone with excellent yields can be achieved through wafer transferring and batch collection methods.
The single chip condenser microphone presented on the literatures appears some obstacles such as high cost and complicated processes. Those problems could be overcome since we developed the wafer transfer technology. A good sacrificial layer must contain some characteristics, such as rapid removing, low cost and high yields after wafer transferred. There are many sacrificial layer materials we had chosen from experiments. According to our experiments, the thermal silicon oxidation is a good sacrificial layer which could be released in five hours. It costs only NT 200元 per piece to grow a 4˝ silicon oxidation wafer. The yields remain approximately 90 percent after wafer transferred. Moreover, the diaphragm chips on whole wafer could be totally transferred to another carrier wafer by introducing the magnetic force so as to package it easily. The measured frequency response at 1 kHz was –32.4 dBV/Pa as a reference of 0 dB(1 V/Pa), and the total sensitivity was 25 mV/Pa. The bias voltage provided from the electret material is -175 V. The yields have been increased from 10 to 90 ﹪ since we introduced the silicon oxidation material as the sacrificial layer to replace the aluminum ones. The cost of silicon oxidation as a sacrificial layer was 70 % lower than that of ICP-CVD Si3N4 materials. The assembly Si-based electret condenser microphone was fabricated from four inch silicon wafer. The average cost of that is about NT 7元.
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