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標題: 以等應力懸臂樑形變方法量測奈微米尺度之金屬薄膜動態及靜態機械行為
Static and dynamic mechanical properties measurement of micro-nano metal thin film using cantilever beam deflection
作者: 陳朋馳
Chen, Peng-Chih
關鍵字: thin film mechanical properties;薄膜材料;paddle;cantilever beam;damping;vibration;anelastic;機械性質;振盪;滯彈性
出版社: 精密工程學系所
引用: [1] 半導體推廣辦公室期刊第36期,2009 [2] Nix,W.D.,“Mechanical Properties ofThin Films”pp.138-182,January,2005 [3] M. Ohring, “The Material Science of Thin Films”, Academic Press, New Jersey, 197, (1992) pp.224. [4]郭正次、朝春光著,奈米結構材料科學,全華科技圖書股份有限 公司(2004) [5] A.S.Nowick and B.S.Berry,”Anelastic relaxation in crystalline solids”, pp.1-28,1972 [6].E. O. Hall, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 643 , 747 (1951) [7].R.P.Vinci and J.J.Vlassak,“Mechanical behavior of thin films,” Annu. [8].MRS spring meeting,Symposium O:Thin Films-Stresses and Mechanical Properties Mar.28,2005 Rev.Mater.Sci. 26 , 431-62 (1996) [9].G.M. Pharr, W.C. Oliver, and F.R.Brotzen, “On the generality of the relationship among contact stiffness, contact area, and elastic modulus during indentation,“Journal of Materials Research, 7, pp 631-617, 1992. [10].G.M. Pharr, and W.C. Oliver, “Measurement of thin film mechanical properties using nanoindentation,” MRS Bulltin, 7, pp 28-33, 1992. [11].W.C. Oliver, and G.M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,“Journal of Materials Research, 7, pp 1564-1583, 1992. [12] N.X. Randall and R.A.J. Soden, “Characterization of the mechanical properties of MEMS devices using nanoscale techniques,”Proceeding of Material Research Society Symposium, 741, pp. J2.3.1-J2.3.9, 2003. [13].J.J. Vlassak and W.D. Nix, “A new bulge test technique for the determination Of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of thin films,”Journal of MaterialsResearch, 7, no. 12, pp. 3242-3249, 1992. [14].M. G. Allen, M. Mehregany, R. T. Howe et al., “Microfabricated structures for the in situ measurement of residual stress, Young’s modulus, and ultimate strain of thin films,” Applied Physics Letters 51 (4), 241-3 (1987). [15].A. J. Kalkman and A. H. Verbruggen, “High-temperature bulge-test setup for mechanical testing of free-standing thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., Vol. 74, No. 3, March 2003. [16].R. Spolenak, W.L. Brown, “Bulge testing of mechanical properties of thin copper films,” Lucent Tech., Bell Labs Innovations (2000). [17] W.N. Sharpe, Jr., B. Yuan, R. Vaidyanathan and R.L. Edwards,“Measurements of Young’s modulus, Poisson’ ratio, and tensile strength of polysilicon,” The 10th IEEE International workshop of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, MEMS '' 97,1997, pp. 424-429. [18] D. T. Read and J. W. Dally, “Strength, ductility, and fatigue life of aluminum thin films,” International Journal of Microcircuits and Electronic Packaging 16 (4),313-18 1993. [19] Haque, M.A. and Saif, M.T.A., “In Situ Tensile Testing of nano-scale Specimens in SEM and TEM,” EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS,42(1), 123-128 2001. [20] Ming-Tzer Lin, Chi-Jia Tong and Chung-Hsun Chiang, “Design and development of sub-micron scale specimens with electroplated structures for the microtensile testing of thin films” Springer-Verlag 2006. [21]. [22] W.D.Nix, Metallurg. Trans. 20A 2217 (1-989) [23] J.A.Schweitz, “Mechanical characterization of thin films by micromechanical techniques,” MRS Bulletin 17 (7), 34-45 (1992) [24] T.P.Weihs, S.Hong, J.C.Bravman et al , “Mechanical deflection of cantilever microbeams: a new technique for testing the mechanical properties of thin films,” Journal of Materials Research 3 (5), 931-42 (1988). [25] K. Najafi and K. Suzuki, “A novel technique and structure for the Measurement of intrinsic stress and Young’s modulus of thin films,”Proceedings: IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. An Investigation of Micro Structures, Sensors,Actuators, Machines and Robots (IEEE Cat.No.89THO249-3), 96-7 1989. [26] [27] Ye et al, “Determination of the mechanical properties of microstructures”,Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, v 54, n 1-3,June, 1996, p 750-754 [28] K. E. Petersen, and C. R. Guarnieri, “Young’s modulus measurements of thin films using micromechanics,” Journal of Applied Physics, 50, pp. 6761-6766,1979. [29] L.M. Zhang, D. Uttamchandani and B. Culshaw, “Measurement of Mechanical properties of silicon microresonators,” Sensors and Actuators A, 29, pp. 79-84,1991. [30] L. Kiesewetter, J.-M. Zhang, D. Houdeau and A. Steckenborn,“Determining of Young’s moduli of micromechanical thin films using the resonance method,”Sensors and Actuators A, 35, pp. 153-159, 1992. [31]莊達人, VLSI製造技術,高立圖書有限公司 [32] [33]鄭雅淇,以光學單點雷射量測等應力懸臂樑形變方法探討微奈米 尺度下之薄膜材料機械行為,2009 [34]陳彥庭,以光學干涉量測等應力微槳型懸臂樑形變方法探討微米 尺度下銅薄膜材料機械行為,2009 [35] 孟繼洛,應用力學-動力學,高立圖書,1994
本篇論文介紹一應力均勻分佈之新型微槳型樑結構(Paddle cantilever)作為薄膜材料貼附之載具試片,搭配光學量測方法及力學理論分析運算以萃取黏附在載具試片上薄膜材料機械性質。試件以標準CMOS製程,以嚴謹之製作方法達成試件一致性的目標。研究中以非接觸性的靜電力負載及光學量測設備避免了試件表面及微結構在量測中不受到破壞,同時由於薄膜沉積於槳型樑結構上,故薄膜沉積厚度可由數十奈米至數微米,因此可對奈米尺度薄膜材料進行更深入的探討。
本文對材料在彈性範圍內的機械行為進行研究,並以靜電力驅動後釋放負載,可以觀察到試片會以振盪且振幅逐漸衰減的方式回到負載前的位置,藉此觀察材料滯彈性的彈性後效(elastic aftereffect)行為。

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies are developing rapidly with increasing study of the design, fabrication and commercialization of microscale systems and devices. Continued growth of Microsystems technologies requires still further miniaturization, with a corresponding need to understand how length scales affect static and dynamic mechanical behavior of all the components. Accurate knowledge on the static and dynamic mechanical behaviors of thin film materials used for MEMS is important for successful design and development of MEMS.
Here, a new technique for studying the mechanical behavior of thin metal films is presented. The test specimen was designed to deposit on a novel triangle shape “paddle” beam in order to provide uniform plane strain distribution. Standard clean room processing was used to prepare the sample. The sample dimensions are 20mm × 20mm, using a silicon substrate. The length of the triangular beam from the fixed end to the free end connected to the paddle plate is 3mm. The area of the paddle plate is 25mm2. The thickness of the silicon wafer is 250μm. The thickness of the cantilever beam is 40μm after etching. Sputter deposition was used to deposit the metal conduct layer onto the bottom surface. The tested thin film on the top surface can then be measured for its static and dynamic mechanical properties.
The measurement system is custom design and the system set-up is design to measure beam deflection by either capacitance or a laser point reflection inside the vacuum chamber. It consists of the position sensor measurement and the deflection electrode. The measurement is made using a capacitance plate mounted on the PC board on top or a laser point reflected from the paddle plate surface into a position sensing detector (PSD).
The static testing on the modulus measurements of Al thin films with different thickness was presented. The dynamic properties of Al thin film were also studied using the dynamic frequency response of the paddle structure generated by electrostatic force under different vacuum pressure were also demonstrated.
其他識別: U0005-1002201013000700
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